Dhami Jhakri in Nepal, how to share

Devnagari art (c) satisshroff freiburg 2007
The Pagodas and the Himalayas (c) Art by satisshroff 2007

Nepali-German medical & ethnological Glossary (Karin & Satis Shroff, Freiburg)

Notes on Transliteration

The transliteration of Nepali and tribal words can sometimes be problematic even for a native speaker, since the translation languages, namely German and English, do not include larynx sounds (gutturals), fore-palate sounds (palatals), retroflex sounds (palate is touched by the tip of the tongue), tooth sounds (dentals) , Lip sounds (labiale), half vowels and sibilants (aspirated), and therefore the Nepali language is difficult to reproduce. The words are often written in the English form (as in Karunakar Baidya's “Teach Yourself Nepali” and in Satis Shroff's Nepali Kleine Sprachkunde (Horlemann Verlag).

The Nepali German words in this book follow the form of Tara Nath Sharma, with vowels capitalized.

The translations of Tibetan and Tibetan-Burmese words by different authors have been retained, as this could lead to further confusion because most of the ethnological reports on Nepal, Tibet and especially the Himalayan peoples were written by foreigners without any knowledge of Nepal. R.L. Turner, for example, was a British researcher (1931) who translated the Nepali word "chodnu" 5f8g (abandoned) as "chhornu" 5f / g. Here it is clear that he is the spoken form of ha-ada-addha x = ha; 8 = ada; If = akshya) not mastered. This resulted in translation errors. Although Nepali is the lingua franca of the meanwhile 19 million Nepalese, many words come from the Tibetan-Burmese language group as well as from Urdu, Arabic and English.

The mountain farmer in Nepal speaks a simple language, but the Chettris and Brahmins with their privileged knowledge of Sanskrit speak very differentiated and correct. Sanskrit plays the same role in Nepal as Latin does in Europe. Just as the German professor resorts to his Latin treasure when he wants to express something more complicated or more intellectual, the Brahmin (Bahun, Jotisi) does so with Sanskrit. But this is not only an intellectual, but he takes on the function of a mediator between humans and gods.

In contrast to the relatively simple, spoken Nepali that one hears as a trekking tourist, for example, the written language is much more complicated. One notices this immediately when one reads the "Gorkhapatra", the "required reading" of the average Nepalese who is not only looking for information, but also for job offers, etc. Before Nepal became a constitutional monarchy, Radio Nepal and television (Nepal TV) also broadcast exclusively in Nepali. In the meantime, however, there is a tendency to also take into account the languages ​​of other ethnic groups who have felt neglected up to now. In addition to Nepali, Maithili, Newari, Thakali, Tibetan, Tamangbhasa, Rai- and Kiratkura, Magar- and Limbubhasa are also spoken in Nepal.

Here I have tried to reproduce the German equivalents of Nepali terms or words as they are spoken by the inhabitants of Nepal. Local variants of expressions are mentioned if they differ significantly.

c = a cf = aa (long) O = i O = i (long)
p = u (short) p = u (long) C = ri P = e (long)
P = ai cf = o cf = au c + = am
c M = ah
Gutturale: (larynx sounds) s v u 3 8
ka kha ga gha ng / anga
Palatals: (frontal palate) r 5 h ß
cha / tcha chha dja djha ya

Retroflex lute: 6 7 8 9 0f
(Palate becomes of ta tha da dha na
the tip of the tongue)

Dentale: (tooth sounds) t y b w g
(Is lisped) ta tha da dha na

Labiale: (lip sounds) k km a e d
pa pha ba bha ma

Half vowels: o / n y
Yes ra la wa

Sibilants: z if;
scha sa sa

X q 1
Ha tra gya

X (ha) is an aspirate sound, If (akhhya), q (tra) and 1 (gya) are double consonants. The sounds 8 = (ada) and 9 (addha) are modifications of the retroflex sounds 8 (da) and 9 (dha). The consonants can generally be changed in twelve different forms with the help of vocabulary, with the vowels being added to the consonants in order to be able to make a change.

The Nepali language and the poets and writers of Nepal:

The opening of Nepal to western travelers since the sixties of the twentieth century has aroused the interest to learn more about this country, its people, its living conditions and its tradition. This was the reason to translate selected examples of modern short stories and poems from the Nepalese language into German for the first time.

The demand for Nepalese literature beyond the borders of one's own country has so far been largely limited to English translations. In this present anthology the attempt is made to offer readers interested in Nepalese literature a few selected stories from short prose and poems in German. The translators largely stuck to the Nepalese texts, which is why the texts have retained their strange and peculiar character.

The forerunners of the comparatively young literary tradition of Nepal are stories and translations from Sanskrit literature.

The Nepalese short story is a genre that, in its present form, did not emerge until the early 1930s. In a relatively short time it has achieved an astonishingly high level of refinement and has become a genre of its own in Nepalese prose literature. The themes of these short stories provide information about the life of the inhabitants in Nepal in the twentieth century.

When you think of the poems of 20th century Nepal you have to think of poets like: Lekhnath Paudyal, Balkrishna Sama and Lakshmiprasad Devkota. Nepal's diverse and sophisticated literature is rich in poetry as almost every writer also writes poetry. The poem has always played a special role because it was used as a means to postulate socially critical and political issues in a society where governments censored the media. Census-free literature has only existed in Nepal since November 1990 with the transformation of the absolute monarchy into a constitutional Hindu monarchy with basic democratic principles.

The Nepalese literature also describes the situation in other Himalayan countries. The stronghold of Nepali literature can be found in Kathmandu but also in Darjeeling, Kursong, Kalimpong, Assam, Nagaland and Gangtok (Sikkim). There are literary societies and annual awards for Nepali writers and poets. The most famous prizes are: Royal Nepal Academy Prize, Tribhuvan Puraskar, Madan Puraskar, Sajha Prize, Nepali Literature Society Prize (Darjeeling), Nepali Academy Prize (West Bengal) and National Literature Academy Prize (Delhi).


Synopsis of Nepali-German Medical & Ethnological Glossary:

This book is an introduction to medical and ethnological terminology collected from the available anthropological literature on Nepal as well as the authors own experiences in Nepal, for one grew up with jhakris, dhamis, bongtings, kusaleys, jotisis and other ethnic healers from the different ethnic groups of Nepal, as well as the traditional ayurvedic, unani and tibetan traditions of medicine, which are well-known and established since centuries in the Himalayas.

This collection does not profess to represent all Nepalese words, but is intended to grow on-line with more interaction with the patients, medical staff and ethnologists through the use of essential feed-back in the form of electronic and snail-mails. If the reader has an interesting observation or suggestion to make, please feel free to send us a line or two. .

The Nepalese world that the Nepali poets and writers describe and create is a different one, compared to the western one. It is true that modern technology and globalization have reached Kathmandu Valley and the bigger towns of the Himalayan Kingdom, but the world outside Kathmandu Valley still remains rural and untouched by modernity.

The trekking tourism has been booming along the much-treaded trails but village-life has changed little. The traditional caste system prevails. Nepal still has immense problems in the socio-cultural, religious, economic sectors. The rampant corruption in all sectors, with special emphasis in politics, commercial and economic sectors has shaken the beliefs of generations of Nepalis. The much-proclaimed democracy initiated in 1990 hasn't been able to fulfill its promises, and maoistic communism is on the rise in major parts of Nepal, where not only the Nepalis of tibeto-burman origin live, but also in Hindu areas, as though it were a panacea for all of this ailing nation's malady. In Solokhumbu, known for its Everest-trekking route, 300 maoists were killed by the police in 2005.

As time has shown us in the past, there is no genuine cure for all the problems of this country. Nepal's democracy has to learn to crawl before it can walk and after a decade of constitutional democracy, the nation is still in its infancy. The incessant changes of governments and the rise of communism has irritated not only to the people within, but also the comity of aid-giving nations without. Despite the 40,000 NGOs and aid-giving agencies, Nepal still belongs to the Least Developed Countries. There's definitely something wrong in this nature paradise.

This book cries to be written because there are hardly any books written by Nepali authors. It's always the traveling tourist, geologist, geographer, biologist, climber and ethnologist who writes about Nepal and its people, environment, flora and fauna. The Nepalese are mostly statists in these visit-Nepal-scenarios published in New York, Paris, Munich and Sydney and they are described through western eyes. But there have been generations of thinking and writing Nepalis, who were either educated in old Benares (Varanasi), in British Public Schools in Darjeeling and government schools and colleges in Nepal and India, who have written and published hundreds of books and magazines.

In Patan's Madan Puraskar Library alone, which Mr. Kamal Mani Dixit, Patan's Man of Letters, describes as the "Temple of Nepali language", there are 15,000 Nepali books and 3500 different magazines and periodicals about which the western world hasn't heard or read. A start was made by Michael Hutt of the School of Oriental Studies London, in his English translation of contemporary Nepali prose and verse in Himalayan Voices and Modern Nepali Literature.

The book is aimed at all readers and seeks to contribute towards appreciating the innermost thoughts, fears, delights, hopes and frustrations of the caste-bound, caste-ridden, purity and pollution -obsessed high-caste Indo-aryan Nepalis, and the nonchalant but handicapped tribal Nepalis from different parts and walks of life. Other readers are the increasing number of male and female trekking tourists, climbers seeking their own limits, peace and tranquility, spiritual experience or a much-needed monologue in the rarefied heights of the Nepal Himalayas.


Nepal is a narrow strip of land, about 835 km long and 160 km wide, which covers the southern flank of the central Himalayas. The Himalayas, in Sanskrit "place of eternal snow," have a central place in the beliefs and thoughts of the peoples of Nepal. For both the Hindus and the Buddhists, these mountains are the origin of the world. Its highest peaks are revered as the seat of the gods. On the Kailash, for example, Shiva was born and here he meditates for all eternity. The Karnali, Gandaki, Bagmati and Kosi rivers drain to the Ganges. Since time immemorial, pilgrims have flocked to make their ritual offerings at the consecrated places. Trekking tourists and mountaineers from all over the world come there.

The Nepali population comes from Indo-Aryan groups (75%), Tibetan and Mongolian migrants and is a mixture of Hindu and Buddhist cultures. Nepali (52%) is the lingua franca of the 19 million Nepalese. The script is called Devnagari and is related to Sanskrit. Besides Nepali, 36 languages1 are spoken in Nepal, e.g. Newari (3%), Maithli (11%), Bhojpuri (8%), Tharu (4%). Tibetan Burmese groups speak Thakali, Tibetan, Tamangbhasa (3.5%), Magar, Kiratkura (2% Limbu, Rai). About a third of all Nepalese settle in the Terai, namely ethnic groups such as the Tharus, Danuwars, Majhis, Darais, Rajbansi, Dhimals, Bodos, Dhangar and the Muslims of Nepal2.

The Nepali language moves within the framework of the administrative self-image. The Nepali counterparts speak poor English because of the Nepali education and training, as the official language is Nepali and the filing is accordingly. For visitors from the west, NGO workers3 or development workers who cannot speak Nepali, there can be massive communication problems. The language of the Nepali counterpart moves between privatizing proximity and officially normative style. You have to change the linguistic style like a chameleon and adapt to the client's milieu, between elaborate and restricted language code, between administrative language, ruler's language and advisory, client-centered language.

There are more religious festivals in Nepal than there are calendar days in the year. The dates of the religious festivals shift from year to year because the lunar calendar is used in Nepal. The official calendar is called Bikram Sambat (BS) and begins with the year 57 BC. Accordingly, the year 1995 in Nepal is 2051 BS. A Nepalese year4 also has 12 months with 28 to 32 days each, and an additional day is added every 3 years. The New Year starts in mid-April.

The dominant religion of Nepal is Hinduism (89.5%). This is thus also the traditional religion of the social leaders of Nepal, the high castes of the Brahmins and Chettris, who make up over half of the total Nepalese population. Although Gautama Buddha 563 BC Was born in southern Nepal (Lumbini), Nepal's state religion is Hinduism. In Nepal, every step breathes religion. The numerous deities do not live in heaven, but in the midst of the Nepalese, with whom there is constant communication through the daily puja, a god worship in the form of offerings and prayers. Every Nepalese worships the deity of his choice, although Hindus initially only believe in a divine power of the universe. This is shapeless, omnipresent, omnipotent and omniscient. There are also Muslims (3%), followers of the Kirati religion, and around 50,000 Christians (as of 1992).

The population living in the north of Nepal is under the influence of Tibetan Buddhism (5%). Far from the centers of the Hindu population, Mongolian groups in the north (e.g. the Sherpas and Tamangs) have mainly maintained contact with the Tibetan population and their institutions. Their culture shows a variety of Tibetan characteristics. From the 5th to 6th centuries, primitive Buddhism developed v. The Buddhism of the "small vehicle" including the Theraveda, which belongs to the Hinayana. The Mahayana later split off from this. Mahayana Buddhism in its special form, Vajrayana Buddhism with its magical practices and secret teachings, is still today alive in Nepal and comprises a complex system of deities and guardian spirits.

The Nepalese Kingdom tries to make Hindu values ​​the basic idea of ​​the Nepalese constitution and to overlay ethnic cultures with Hindu ways of thinking and behaving. At the head of a Hindu state is a "Raja", King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shahadeva. Many Nepalese see the king of Nepal as an embodiment of the god Vishnu (sustainer). The absolute power of the king is based on the special religious and social tasks that the ruler has due to his birth and position in Hindu society, his raja-dharma.

After the democracy movement of 1990, the king formally remains in command of the armed forces, but the de facto leadership lies with a national defense council chaired by the prime minister. According to the constitution of 1990 (Article 19), the practice of religion is subject to the Hindu state principle and corresponds entirely to the Hindu understanding of religion (Dharma). Everyone has the right to profess and practice their inherited religion in its traditional way.

I myself come from Nepal, where there are 4000005 shamans6 (Jhankris, Bijuwa, Dhamis, Bon-priest, Lamas) and other natural healers, and in my childhood I was treated by natural healers (Dhami-Jhakri), Ayurvedic, homeopathic and allopathic doctors. There was a peaceful, both-and-like attitude in the family when it came to treating illness or discomfort. The various medical directions coexist peacefully, as do the various religions such as Bon, Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam. The Nepali is a devout person and seeks contact with his religion, his gods and spirits.

Environment and Melting Pot of Nations: In the ecological perspective, magic or religious thinking can approximate the unity of people (in this context Nepalis) and nature. Human problems and needs arise from transactions between the Nepalis and their environment. When a client goes to Dhami-Jhakri, it may be a symptom that the Nepali client's intact wholeness is no longer there and he wants to strive to restore it.This is where networking comes into play: Contacts with relatives, neighbors (compatriots if you are abroad as a migrant) are important on the emotional level. At the functional level, contacts with institutions such as state hospitals, health posts, advice centers, schools, government offices and associations are necessary.

The legends of the Mongolian ethnic groups of Nepal say that their original homeland was in "Bokim" and "Pohiung" 8, above the snow in Tibet. The Sherpas of Khumbu, for example, emigrated from Tibet in the 16th century. Because of the path of migration, the Mongoloid-Caucasoid races touched the mountains of Nepal. While the Mongoloid race took over the eastern part of the Ganda Valley, the Caucasoid races spread over the entire western Himalayan region. In the 12th century the Khasa Malla power was at its zenith, and its territory reached over the Kali-Karnali plain. The Khasas marched further east to the Gandaki Plain and reached the Kathmandu Valley in 1387. Their Gorkhali descendants conquered further eastern areas as far as Sikkim. The Gorkhalis' ambitions to conquer the territory from Sutlej to Tista were only stopped in 1815 by the superior military arsenal of the East India Company.

© Satis Shroff Freiburg, May 2006

amal pitta cdn lkQf amAl pitta (nep.) acidity, sour
andho cGwf Andho (nep.) blind man; andhi: blind woman
andhakaar cGWfsf / andhAkaar (nep.) darkness
apaang cfkf8u apAang (nep.) disabled
apach ckr apAch (nep.) indigestion, (uhalai khana pachena: he could not digest the food).
aasu cf: f aAsu (nep.) tears (usko halat dekhera mero aasu baghyo: after I saw his condition, tears flowed).
aatma cfTdf Aatma (nep.) soul. (ma marey pachi mero aatma bacchi rahanchha: When I die, my soul will live on).
aanraa cfG / f aAnraa (nep.) intestine, intestine (aanra-bhudi niskiyo: both the stomach and the intestines came out). In the spoken form you can also hear "Aandraa"
aau cf + j aAu (nep.) dysentery
aulo cfpnf Aulo (nep.) Malai jespalta aulo ko rog lageko chha: This time the malaria caught me.
anuhaar cgxf / anuhAar (nep.) face (tapain ko anuhar ko yaad ayo: I remember (or think) of your face).
asamartha c; dy asAmartha (nep.) incapable, incapable, clumsy.
aspatal c: ktfn aspAtal (nep.) hospital, hospital
aulaa cfnf aulAa (nep.) finger; budhi-aulaa (thumb); kanchi-aulaa (little finger)
aulo lagnu cfnf nfUg aUlo lagnu (nep.) get malaria (tapailai aulo lageychha: you have malaria).
ausadhi cfifwL from Adhi (nep.) remedies. ausadhi pasal: pharmacy / pharmacist.
baath afy bAath (nep.) arthritis, rheumatism
balak / bachha afns aRrf bAlak / bAchha (nep.) child / baby. Although ‘bachha’ is widespread in India and Kathmandu, the word is usually used for young animals (e.g. sungur-ko bachha: piglet)
bangara af8u / f bAngara (nep.) pine
bahiro alx / f bAhiro (nep.) deaf (male); bahiri: deaf (female).
bahula bAhula (nep.) crazy, mentally confused or handicapped (timi kina bahulaeko ?: Why are you playing so crazy?)
banta afGtf bAnta (nep.) vomiting (rogi le banta garechha: the patient has vomited).
baudyai afBfo bAudyai (nep.) cramp
behosi axf; L behosi (nep.) absent-minded, absent-minded; behosi pana behosi pAna (nep.) absent-mindedness, absent-mindedness, unconsciousness.
bhiringi le / L + uL bhIringi (nep.) sexually transmitted disease (syphilis) syphilitic bhIringi-ko
bhitamin le6fdLg bhItamin (nep.) vitamin (phal haru ma dherai bhitamin hunchhan: There are many vitamins in fruit).
bigyan la1fg bigyAn (nep.) science.
Bish / bikh laif jf lav bikh / bish (nep.) Gift (tyo narile bikh khaye chhey: the woman has taken poison).
biphar laKf / biphAr (nep.) smallpox dfOsf / fu
birsanu a; g Forgotten (email bhusukkai birse: I've forgotten everything). la; bIrse (forgot). Syn. BhUlnu (nep.).
bhachhiyo eflrof bhAchhiyo (nep.) broken (usko khutta bhachhiyo: his leg is broken).
boso af; f boso (nep.) fat (masuma jyada boso rachha: there is a lot of fat in the meat).
briddha la4 briddha (nep.) old person, budo (m) a8f / budi (f) a9LdfG5 somey
budeshkal a8; sfn budeshkal (nep.) antiquity, in old age
budjnu aO-g understanding (budjhnu bhayo ?: Did you understand ?; email budjhe: I got it)
chhare rog 5x / / fu chhAre rog (nep.) epilepsy, syn. ld / uL mIragi (nep.); ck: df / Apasmaar (nep.), Apasmaar ko rogi (epileptic)
chhaati 5ftL chhAati (nep.) chest
chhala 5fnf chAala (nep.) skin (bagh-ko chaala: tiger skin)
chalaunu rnfpg chAlaunu (nep.) move (haath-khutta chalaunu-hos: Please move your extremities.
chaya rog 5fof / fu chAya rog (nep.) tuberculosis
chikitsalaya lrlstkfnfo chIkitsalaya (nep.) Health-post; Health station / clinic
chilaunu lrnfpg chIlaunu (nep.) Itching (tapaiko ghau chilauchha? Does your wound area itch?)
chiudo lrpF8f chiudo (nep.) chin
damko rog bdsf / fu dAmko rog (nep.) / damko byatha: bronchial asthma
daarhi bf / L dAarhi (nep.) beard (tapainko dari katnu hos: shave your beard)
dartar 8fs6 / dAktar (nep.) doctor, doctor (ramro daktar kaha pahinchha? Where can you find a good doctor?)
daat bft dAat (nep.) tooth; Teeth: daatharu; (mero daat dukhyo: I have a toothache).
daatko daktar bftsf 8fs6 / dAatko daktar (nep.) dentist
dhadura bfb / dhAdura (nep.) measles; syn. 7pnf ladf / L thEula bImari (nep.); bfb / dAdur (nep.)
dhanus tankaar wgif 6gsf / dhAnus tankaar (nep.) Tetanus
dhyan Wofg dhyAn (nep.) meditate, meditating contemplation; religious immersion.
dhanyabad wGoafb dhAnyabad (nep.) Thank you
disa lbzf diarrhea (malai disaa lagyo: I have diarrhea. Pakhala (nep.) Kfvfnf
disa lbzf disA (nep.) stool / bowel movements (aadja disa bhayo ki bhayena? Did you have bowel movements or not?
disa banda lbzfaGbf dIsa banda (nep.) Constipation (Engl. Constipation), kostaha badhta sfi7 a4tf
dhaad 9f8 dhAaad (nep.) spine (mero dhaad dukhyo: I have back pain along the spine). PIth (nep.) Back lk7
djibro lhaf djibro (nep.) tongue
dukhnu bMVg dUkhnu (nep.) pain (malai jaha dukhchha: I have pain here)
gaala ufnf gAala (nep.) cheek (ladjayo bhani gaala rato hunchha: the cheeks turn red when you are ashamed).
ghaati 3f6L ghAati (nep.) neck
ghuda 38f ghudA (nep.) knee
ghau 3fp ghAu (nep.) wound / cut (mero ghau jati bhayo: my wound has healed); rf6 kg chot parnu (injure oneself)
gidi lubL gIdi (nep.) brain / brain (usko gidi chaina: he has no brain). Lbdfu 1fg gyAn: Knowledge
gidiko jalo sunniney rog lubLsf hfnf; lgg / fu gIdiko jalo sunniney rog (nep.) meningitis.
gidjaa luhf gidhAa (nep.) palate
haad xf8 hAad (nep.) haadi x8L hAadi (nep.) bone
haat xfy x: t hAat (nep.) hand (nepalma deiny haatle bhat khana parchha: One must eat rice with the right hand in Nepal; hastha e.g. handwriting is hastha-akshar.
haidja xhf hAidja (nep.) Cholera
hatkela xfysnf hAtkela (nep.) inner palm
gaad uf8 gAad (nep.) goitre (goitre)
garbhavat hunu uejtL xg gArbhavati hunu (nep.) to be pregnant
garbhanirodh-ko aushadhi uejlg / fwsf cfifwL gArbhanirod-ko aushadhi (nep.) contraceptive
ghati dukhnu 3f6L bMVg ghAti dukhnu (nep.) have a sore throat (tapaiko ghati dukhchha?)
jhaada ´f8f jhAada (nep.) Diarrhea, diarrhea
jhakri ßfCL jhAkri (nep.) Shamane, Traditional Healer. Besides the Jhakri there are Bijuwa, Dhami, -priest, Lamas, Yeba (priest, healer and exorcist of Limbo), Bongthing,
jiwan hLjg Life (jiwan yastai chha: That's life); dt mrIt (nep.) lifeless, lghLj nIrjiwa (nep.)
jorni hfgL jorni (nep.) joints (budeshkal-ma jorni dukhchha: bones hurt in old age)
junga huf jungA (nep.) Mustache
juka / juga hsf jugA / juga (nep.) Ascaris lumbricoides gr askaris roundworm: lat lumbricus earthworm; Intestinal worm
jwaro Hj / f jwAro (nep.) fever (birami-lai jwaro ayo: the patient has a fever).
kaadh / kum sfw, sd kAadh / kum (nep.) shoulder (mero kum-ma deota chha: a god sits on my shoulder, i.e. one shouldn't touch the shoulder with Nepalese).
kaledjo snhf kAledjo (nep.) liver (kaledjo bina bachna garo parchha: it is difficult to live without a liver)
kano (m) / kani (f) sfgf sfgL kAno / kAni (nep.) One-eyed
kaan sfg kAan (nep.) ear (usle kaan sundaina: he doesn't hear anything).
kabjiyat alhoft kAbjeyat (nep.) Constipation syn. Constipation Obstruktio alvi; Constipation, delayed defecation.
khabar pathaunu va / k7fpg khAbar pathaunu: Send a message
khana kharab hunu vfgf v / fa xg khAna khrab hunu (nep.) food poisoning
kamal pitta sdnlkQf kAmal pitta (nep.) jaundice, hepatitis
kammar / kambar sd /, sDa / kAmmar / kAmbar (nep.) Huft (kambar halaunu: swing the hips)
kapal skfn kApal (nep.) hair. It actually means hair, but is also used as a synonym for head. (naniharu-ley mero kapal dukhayo: The children give me a headache); (kahiley dekhi kapal dukhyo? How long have you had a headache?)
karang s / + u kArang (nep.) rib (birami-ko karang matra dekhiyo: one only sees the ribs of the patient); karang ra chaala hunu (literally ribs and skin: being very dehydrated, emaciated, thin, in a miserable state).
Khana vfgf khAna (nep.) Khana / ausadhi khanu bhayo? Did you take any food / medication?
khoki vfsL khoki (nep.) cough; khoki lagnu have a cough.
ke bhayo? s eof < ke="" bhayo?="" was="" ist="">
ke chha? s 5 < was="" ist="">
ke yarns? s ug < was="" soll="" man="">
khakar vsf / khAkar (nep.) sputum
khoki vfsL khOki (nep.) cough (malai khoki lagyo: I have a cough).
khutta v§f khuttA (nep.) foot
kuhino sOgf kuhino (nep.) elbow
kurkuchchaa ssrf kurkuchchaa (nep.) heel
kustha or kodh si7, sf9 kOdh (nep.) leprosy; kusthapidith (leper), kodhi, kustha-rogi leprosy patient
lagnu nfUg lAgnu (nep.) got, have (malai ruga lagyo: I have a cold)
langada n + u8f lAngada paralyzed person (m), langadi (w).
lata (m) / lati (f) nf6f nf6L lAta / lAti (nep.) mute (lata-ko desh-ma gadha tandheri: in the land of the mute, the one with the goiter is the most beautiful).
madhu meha dwdx mAdhu meha (nep.) Diabetes mellitus
man dg mAn (nep.) Geist
somey dfG5 mAnchey: male person, human; djawan somey: adult human, sano somey: small human, thulo somey: large human; pudkey somey: short stature, dwarf, moto somey: fat person (male); moti: fat woman; dublo (m) / dubli (f) somey: thin person.
mannu dfGg MANnu (nep.) accept, accept, accept, accept, affirm.
mannasik dfgl; s mAnnasik (nep.) Mental, through Mental dfgl; stfn mAnashikta-ley (Mentalspital).
manawas shasthra dfgjf; mAnawas shAsthra (nep.) Humanities and its processes.
manobigyan dgfla1fg mAnobigyan (nep.) psychology.
markanu d8sg mArkanu (nep.) Sprain (Usko khutta markeychha: He has sprained his foot
masu df; mAsu (nep.) meat (masu mitho chaina: the meat doesn't taste good).
mamshapeshi dD; kzL mAmshapeshi (nep.) muscle
mayal / mayla dnf mAyal / mayla (nep.) dirt, dirty, unclean (mero kameez mayla chha: my shirt is dirty).
mrigaulaa ldufnf mrigAulaa (nep.) kidney (somey-le afnu mrigaulaa bechnu hudaina: a person should not sell his kidney); gUrda (nep.) ubf
mukh dv mukh (nep.) mouth
murchha parnu d5f kg murchhA parnu (nep.) faint, collapse
mutu d6 mUtu (nep.) heart (tapaile mero mutu-ma chot garnu bhayo: you hurt my heart).
naadi gf8L nAadhi (nep.) wrist
naak gfs nAak (nep.) nose
naaito gfO6f nAaito (nep.) navel
nang g8 nAng (nep.) Nagel
nashaa gzf nAshaa (nep.) Vein (daktarle nashaa paayena: the doctor did not find the vein); Pulse from radial artery d6sf ult., Gf8L
nidhar lgwf / nidhAr (Nep.) forehead
oth cf7 oth (nep.) lip
paitala ktfnf pAitala (nep.) Sole of the foot
pakhuraa kfv / f pAkharaa (nep.) arm
pakschawat pAkschawat (nep.) paralysis, paralysis
pani sukauney rog pAni sukauney rog (nep.) Dehydration
pet k6 pEt (nep.) belly (malai pet dukhyo: I have a stomach ache).
pagal kfun pAgal (nep.) insane, insane, insane, insane.
pagal khana kfunvfgf pAgal khana (nep.) madhouse, mental institution, psychiatric institution.
pakhala kvnf pAkhala (nep.) / pakhalo diarrhea, diarrhea (malai pakhalo ayo: I have diarrhea). Synonym 5 / kf6f chEr-pAta lagnu (nep.)
pakhalnu kvfNg pAkhalnu (nep.) wash (thal pakhalnu-hos: please wash the plate).
para sarnu k / f; g pAra sarnu (nep.) Menstruation, menstruation, menstruation.
phokso KfmfS; f phokso (nep.) lungs (tb bhayo bhani phoksoharu noksaan hunchha: With tuberculosis, the lungs are impaired).
pinaas lkgf; pinAas (nep.) frontal sinus catarrh m, sinusitis f.
pip, mawad kLk, djfb, pip (nep.) / wAwad pus (ghau bata pip ayo: pus came out of the wound).
pir garnu lk / ug to worry (pir na-garnu-hos: don't worry.
pisap lk; fk pisAp (nep.) urine (malai pisab ayena: I cannot urinate); syn. dt muth.
pasina kl; gf pAsina (nep.) sweat (birami-lai dherai pasina ayo: the patient sweats a lot).
pidaula lk8fnf pidAula (nep.) calves
polu kfNg pOlnu (nep.) burn (timro haath polyo? Did you burn your hand?
pran kf0f prAn (nep.) Spirit of life, soul.
ragat / ut rAgat (nep.) blood
ragatmasi parnu / utdf; L kg rAgatmasi parnu (nep.) getting dysentery
rajswala / fh: jfnf rAjswala (nep.) the menstruation / period (rajswala samaima bhayeko chaina: the period has stopped).
ratopan / ftfkg rAtopan (nep.) rash
rau / f rAu (nep.) body hair or hair of the animals; syn. sz (head hair); skfn kApaal (scalp hair).
ringata l / 8u6f ringAta (nep.) uslai ringata lagechaa: He felt dizzy.
rog / fu rog (nep.) illness (waha rogi hunuhunchha: he is sick); / fuL dfG5 rogi somey: sick person.
rudra ghanti? b 3G6L Adam's apple (literally: Rudras bell). Rudra is a Vedic god. Pashupati, Lord of the Animals and the Wilderness, and Mahadeva with gracious and terrible aspects like Shiva.
rugha-khoki-jwaro? 3f vfsL Hj / f rughA (nep.) Influenza, (lit.Cold-Cough-Fever)
saas phernu; f; kmg sAas phernu (nep.) breathing (mailey saas pherna sakina: I couldn't breathe), apnea.
samartha; dy sAmartha (nep.) able, capable, skillful.
samdjhanu; Dßg remember something (mero barey samdjhanu hai: Please think of me)
sanchai; + r healthy (tapai sanchai hunuhuncha ?: Are you healthy / are you okay? Negation: chaaina)
sardi; bL sArdi (nep.) cold (mero chora-lai sardi lagyo: my son has a cold).
sarir z / L / sArir (nep.) body.
sarir ko awastha (ja dasha) z / L / sf cj: tf sArir ko awastha (ya dasha) (nep.) The state of health (of the body).
sarney rog; g / fu sArney rog (nep.) infectious disease
sujan; hg, kmlng sUjan (nep.), phUlinu (nep.) swelling (med.), thickening
sunniyeko awastha; GgLPsf cj: tf sUnniyeko awastha (nep.) inflammation
sutna nasaknu; Tg g; Sg sUtna nasaknu (nep.) not being able to sleep; Insomnia
swaas nali-ko rog: jf; gnLsf / fu swAas nali-ko rog (nep.) bronchitis
swasthaya: jf: Yo swAsthaya (nep.) health. enf bhAla (nep.), lg / fuL nIrogi (nep.)
swasthaya purna: jf: Yok0f swAsthaya purna (nep.) in good health.
swikar garnu: jLsf / ug swikAr garnu (nep.) accept.
taiphaid 6fOKfmO8 tAiphaid (nep.) Typhus
tauko 6fpsf tAuko (nep.) head
tauko-dukhnu 6fpsf bvg have a headache (malai tauko dukhyo: I have a headache)
theula 7pnf theula (nep.) smallpox
tighra ltuf tighrA (nep.) thigh
toknu 6fSg toknu (nep.) biting (kukur-ley malai tokyo: the dog bit me).
Tusaro-ley khaye-ko tif / fn vfPsf tUsaroley khayeko (nep.) Frozen to death (sherpako khutta tusaroley khayeko rachha: Sherpa's leg is frozen to death); literally khayeko = eaten.
pd / Umer (nep.) age.
jfs jfs wAk-wak (nep.) Nausea, nausea (malai wak-wak lagera ayo: I have nausea / nausea).