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Oxford BBC Guide To Pronunciation: The Essential Handbook Of The Spoken Word 0192807102, 9780192807106

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% "Lena Olausson Catherine Sangster



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Contents Preface Note on trademarks andproprietary terms



viz viii



Preface The Oxford BBC Guide to Pronunciation gives guidance on the pronunciation of names, words, and phrases. Despite its A-Z format it is not so much a dictionary as a collection of particular pronunciations which are tricky, much debated,

curious, or exotic. It is intended for students, teachers, actors, journalists, broadcasters, and anyone interested in ‘saying things right’. The pronunciations are given in an easy-to-read phonetic respelling and also in the system familiar to users of larger Oxford dictionaries, the alphabet of the International Phonetic Association (IPA). Information panels and notes discuss particular pronunciation issues in more detail. Its compact size means that it can be accommodated on a crowded desk, or even slipped into a bag, and be referred to quickly. The book’s main source is the BBC Pronunciation Unit’s own database, and the wide range of topics and languages ​​covered reflect the great diversity of the BBC’s

output. Since its earliest days the BBC has taken pronunciation very seriously. Lord Reith, the first director general, set up

Advisory Committee on Spoken English in 1926. This committee included Robert Bridges, the then Poet Laureate, playwright George Bernard Shaw, and phonetician Daniel Jones. Their task was to advise announcers on ‘words of doubtful pronunciation’; they also turned their attention to place names in the British Isles and beyond. The committee

was disbanded with the outbreak of the Second World War. Since then the provision of pronunciation advice within the BBC has been the responsibility of the full-time staff of the Pronunciation Unit. Like our predecessors we are linguists with speci fi c skills in phonetics and languages, and our remit is broad: to research and advise on the pronunciation of any



name, word, or phrase in any language required by anyone in the BBC. It is on our work, and our collection of approximately

200,000 pronunciations, that this book is based. For this reason we owe particular thanks to all our predecessors in the Unit and the Advisory Committee, on whose shoulders we stand. We are also indebted to the editors of the English pronunciation dictionaries which are always at our elbow as we work, especially John Wells, Clive Upton, Peter Roach, and Jane Setter, and to those ofpronunciation dictionaries in other languages, in particular Duden Ausspracho wiirterbuch , Larousse Dictionnaire de la Prononciation, and RAJ Dizionario d'Ortogra fi a e di Pronunzia. Thanks are due to Angus Stevenson, James McCracken, Judy Pearsall, and Gillian Evans at OUP, and to Trish Stableford for proof-

reading. At the BBC, this book would not have got off the ground without the support of Guy Strickland, Jenny Martin, and Chris Cullen, and would not have stayed in the air without

Martha Figueroa-Clark and Nick Marcus. Lena Olausson Catherine Sangster

Note on trademarks and proprietary terms This dictionary includes some words which have, or are asserted to have, proprietary status as trademarks or otherwise. Their inclusion does not imply that they have acquired for legal purposes a nonproprietary or general signature, nor any other judgment concerning their legal status. In cases where the editorial staff have some evidence that a word has proprietary status this is indicated in the entry for that word by the label trademark, but no judgment concerning the legal status ofsuch words is made or implied thereby.

Introduction About the book Ourjob in the BBC Pronunciation Unit is to help broadcasters correctly pronounce anything they may need to say, and this book is a distillation of our advice. Compared to a standard pronunciation dictionary, therefore, its contents are more varied and the balance is shifted away from words towards proper names and other encyclopedic entries. The pronunciations we have chosen include those for famous people, capital cities, rivers and other geographical features, plants and animals, food and drink, scienti fi c terms, drugs and diseases, musical instruments, composers and their works, and characters from literature and myth. We have selected only those words and phrases which we believe a native speaker of English might be unsure how to pronounce, rather than supplying a larger, more exhaustive set of lexical items. Any such selection process will of course be subjective, and our broad scope means that many interesting pronunciations will inevitably be missing from this small book. However, we decided it best to adopt a magpie-like approach, informed by the usual eclecticism of a day’s work in the Pronunciation Unit, where we regularly flit from news stories to music to drama to quizzes or science programs. For each entry (with the exception of a few family names for which multiple pronunciations are possible) we give just one correct pronunciation. VVhere more than one pronunciation would be acceptable we do not list all the possible slight variants, but where variant pronunciations are signi fi cant or noteworthy they are discussed in a note. The pronunciations

must reflect one particular accent, and in most respects this is the standardized accent of British English known as Received Pronunciation. However, our English pronunciations do not


reflect any systematic model of RP in terms of features such as yod coalescence (ch and j instead of ty and dy in words like Tuesday and seduce): for this level ofdetail readers should consult an English pronunciation dictionary such as the

Longman Pronunciation Dictionawjy, the Oxford Dictionmy ofPronunciationfor Current English, or the Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary. This topic is discussed further in the Respelling and IPA sections of this introduction and also the panel on BBC English. Gadda fi, Mu'ammer (also Qadda fi) Libyan head of state muu-um-o'clock guh-dah-fi / mo, / \ me (r) ga'do: fi /, Arabic [I'111'AII "lI1 '18 (I ') qao'Oae: fi] - Established anglicization; see ARABIC paneL

Personal names are listed surname first for ease of location, although pronunciations of full names are given in their natural order. Significant variant spellings are given, as are unusual plural forms. If both a non-standard plural and a regular -s plural are possible, this is indicated in a note. A brief de fi nition indicates nationality or language where appropriate, and helps con fi rm that you are looking at the right entry: this is not a full-scale dictionary-type de fi nition. The pronunciation is given first in respelling, and then in IPA;

in some cases native IPA will also be given in square brackets. Cross-references and indications of established anglicizations are given in short (bulleted) notes, and longer notes (between ruled lines) discuss more complex aspects such as variant pronunciations or common mispronunciations. Abbreviations used: AM = American English BR = British English

pl. = plural sing. = singular

Pronunciation policy How does the Pronunciation Unit decide what the ‘right’ pronunciation is? Our work is mostly concerned with foreign pronunciations, and here we consult native speakers as often


as possible. The BBC World Service currently broadcasts in over thirty languages, and we work closely with the different language teams. We have a network of contacts outside the BBC, such as embassies, universities, and museums. We also hold a wide range of specialist pronunciation dictionaries and other written material that has been collected since the days of the Advisory Committee on Spoken English. All our foreign pronunciations are subject to a degree of anglicization. Our general aim is to recommend pronunciations that are as close as possible to the native language in question, but modified slightly so that they still fl ow naturally

in an English broadcast. The level of anglicization has altered over the years as broadcasters and audiences have become more familiar with the sounds of foreign languages ​​and the BBC has served an increasingly global audience. There

are also what We call established anglicizations, which are foreign names that have accepted English forms, either of both spelling and pronunciation (e.g. Warsaw for Polish Warszawa), or just of pronunciation (e.g. Paris). We always recommend that established anglicizations are used wherever

they exist as using a native pronunciation instead can confuse the listener, or even sound affected. For more on this topic, see the Anglicization panel. Personal names, foreign or English, are researched with the owner of the name whenever possible. For English place names our aim is to recommend a standardized version of the local pronunciation. However, the Pronunciation Unit has never issued any recommendations in regard to British dialects, so we would certainly not insist that someone with a northern accent use a long ah in Bath, even though that is the local pronunciation — and vice versa for Newcastle. VVhere more than one form is used locally it can still be useful to recommend a single pronunciation, for the

sake of consistency. VVhen deciding on recommendations for particular English words we rely heavily on other specialist English pronouncing dictionaries. Sometimes our particular experience can guide us on certain words that always seem to cause


controversy. Our advice on words like kilometer, schedule, and controversy itself, for which more than one pronunciation is listed in the many dictionaries we consult, is that both pronunciations are acceptable and can be defended if we should receive complaints. However, programs makers sometimes fi nd it useful to know if audiences dislike one particular form, and may in certain contexts fi nd it ‘safer’ to

go for the more traditional pronunciation. When providing this context for our users we make it very clear that it is not a judgment of right and wrong on our part, and we do our best to encourage announcers to use whichever form feels natural

in their speech. Our aim is to reflect current spoken language, not, as some people think, to set and uphold a fi xed standard for all to emulate. This is no easy task. Language is in constant

fl ux, and it can be tricky to avoid holding back the tide ’by recommending pronunciations which are too old-fashioned, while at the same time not giving‘ new ’pronunciations before they have become established. We want to acknowledge language change, not instigate it ourselves. Panels Panels discussing pronunciation of specific languages, as well as some other topics, are dispersed throughout the book. We have included panels on Accents, Anglicization, Arabic, BBC English, Clicks, Czech, Dutch, French, Gaelic, German, Greek, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Polish, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish, Tone, and Welsh, and top ten lists of mispronunciations, pronunciation complaints, and most frequently asked pronunciations. They appear in the appropriate place in the alphabet in the A — Z text. These brief discussions are based on language notes put together by past and present members of the Pronunciation Unit. Native speakers and various reference books were also

consulted. The panels are intended to provide an overview of the pronunciation of the language in question, giving some speci fi c pronunciation tips and spelling-to-sound conversions where possible, in line with our anglicization policy. They are



not intended to give a complete account of that language. We often refer to these panels in the main text, when we feel that the context they provide can be of interest and help clarify a recommendation, for example in the many Latin entries. Respelling The BBC Pronunciation Unit uses an in-house phonetic

spelling system for all written recommendations. It is based on English spelling conventions and should be easily understood by anyone whose native language is English. We do not expect program makers to be able to use the alphabet of the International Phonetic Association (IPA). The phonetic respelling used in this dictionary is based on that used in the Pocket Oaford English Dictionary, but

is similar to the BBC in-house system in many ways. As with the BBC system, it is based on the sounds of English with the

addition of some common non-English sounds such as the front rounded vowels found in French and German.

Consonants b as in bat ch or tch as in church

kh as in Scottish loch or German ich (IPA will disambiguate) I as in leg m as in man

r as in red 5 as in sit Sh as in shop

g as in get

n as in need

h as in has

‘Ll as in top th as in thin th asin this V as in van

ng as in sing

what in wants

hl as in Welsh llan

ng-g as in fi nger

j as lIl_] £ l7n k as in king

nk as in thank p as in pen

y as in yes z asinzebra

Vowels a as in cat e as in bed

uh as in along (‘schwa’)

d as in day

f as infat

i as in pin O as in top

u as in cup uu as in book

ah as in calm aras in bar Biras in hair

zh as in vision

aw as in law ee as in meet 00 as in soon ur as infur



ay as in say eer as in beer oh as in most oor as in poor or as in corn ow as in cow oy as in boy

y as in cry

oe as in French pen or coeur (IPA will disambiguate) oey as in French fauteuil ue as in French vu or Germanfiinf (IPA will disambiguate)

(n g) after a vowel indicates that it is nasalized. a (ng) as in French

vin ah (ng) as in French blanc

o (ng) as in French bon oe (ng) as in French un

Our respellings, unlike many which appear in dictionaries, acknowledge word- fi nal or pre-consonantal R, as in words like hair and party, which is pronounced in some varieties of English (rhotic accents) and not in others (non-rhotic accents) . The BBC Pronunciation Unit’s written advice has always included R where it appears in the spelling, on the

assumption that this will be pronounced by those with rhotic accents, and not by those with non-rhotic accents. Therefore Parker is transcribed as par ~ kuhr, not pah-kuh.

Stress and syllables Syllables are separated by hyphens, and stressed syllables are marked in bold. Secondary stresses are not given. In unusually long names and words more than one syllable may be marked with stress, and in those cases the IPA will indicate which is primary and which is secondary stress. The way the words are broken into syllables in the respecting is not an attempt to reflect actual syllabi fi cation in a given language. Rather, it is a tool to reinforce vowel pronun-

ciations and to ensure the most intuitive transcription. Vlfhen a vowel is long (a long monophthong or a diphthong) or is schwa (uh), the consonant which follows it is placed at the start of the following syllable, if there is one: for example,

pee-tuhr for Peter and puh-tay-toh for potato. When a vowel is short, however, the consonant which follows is placed in the same syllable. The place name Reading, for example, would be transcribed red-ing, not re-ding, which might be confused with the pronunciation ree-ding. VVhen there are


two consonants we split them between the syllables zjbotball is

fuut-bawl. We double S in contexts where an English speaker might otherwise pronounce it as Z, as in ha nss for German Hans. We also double R when it is preceded by a short vowel and followed by another vowel, as in marr-i for marry, merr-i for merry, sorr-i for sorry, mirr-uhr for mirror, and hurr-i for hurry , in order to avoid confusion with, for example, ar-i-uh for aria. IPA

The pronunciation of each entry is also represented using the alphabet of the International Phonetic Association (IPA). These phonemic transcriptions are enclosed by slashes: / /. The IPA transcription represents exactly the same pronunciation that is given in the respelling. However, because a slightly larger range of symbols is used, some sounds can be expressed more precisely in the IPA. For instance, the sound represented as kh in the respelling could either be as in Scottish loch or as in German ich. The IPA uses two different symbols (X and Q) for these two sounds, and so it serves to disambiguate the pronunciation. As with the respelling, the set of sounds used in the IPA transcriptions consists of the basic Sounds of English with the addition of a small number of other sounds.The IPA transcriptions also acknowledge Word— fi nal or pre-consonantal R. Because this sound is pronounced in some accents of English and not in others, it appears in brackets in the IPA transcription. Our IPA transcription is a little more basic than some others which appear in larger pronouncing dictionaries. We do not indicate any other optional sounds by bracketing, italicization, or superscription, and we do not allow for syllabic consonants. In other respects the model of transcription we have applied in this book is that used in all current larger Oxford dictionaries. When the pronunciation given is an established anglicization a second IPA transcription is often included. This gives a native pronunciation for the benefit of those familiar with



the IPA. These pronunciations are enclosed by square brackets: []. In these transcriptions the symbol r is used to denote all r sounds, including the French uvular and the Spanish alveolar trill.

The set of symbols used for the main IPA transcriptions are: Consonants b as in bat d as in day fas in fi lt g as in get

h as in hat j as inyes k as in king las in leg m as in man I1 as in not

Vowels a as in cat 8 as in bed I as in pin i as in cozy D as in top A as in cup

p as in pen

6 as in this

I ‘as in red S as in sit t as in top V as in van W as in will Z as in zebra

I as in shop 3 as in vision if as in church

I] as in sing B as in thin

0: as in law 111 as in soon

(13 as injam

i as in Welsh llan X as in Scottish loch c as in German ich

y as in French vu Y as in German

five AI as in my ao as in cow el as in say

B as in French pen G3 as in French coeur

U as in book

GU as in most

11 '-> 1 as in French

0 as in along

01 as in boy Ia as in beer

(1! As in calm

U9 as in poor

E: as in hair 9: as in fi n it as in meet

AI8 as in fi re 309 as in hour


E as in French vin 51 as in French blanc 5 as in French bon G3 as in French un

The symbol I after avowel indicates that the vowel is long. The symbol "'above a vowel indicates that it is nasalized.

Stress Primary stress is marked with 'preceding the stressed syllable. If there is also a secondary stress this is marked with a preceding ,.


A 83 basaltic lava

ah-ah / 'u: u: l Aachen city, Germany

ah-khuhn / 'o: xan / Aallln, € l-city, Western Sahara

uhl y-oon / el A1'l.1ZI1 / Aalborg see Alborg Aaliyah American singer

ah-lee-yuh / o: 'li: ja / Aalsmeer village, Netherlands ahlss-meer / o: ls'm1a (r) / Aalst city, Belgium ahlst fuzlstl This is the Flemish name. The French name is Alost, pronounced al-ost. Aalto, Alvar Finnish architect and

designer al-var ahl-toh /, alvu: (r) 'u: ltao / Aarhus see Arhus Aaron biblical name

air-uhn] 'e: ren / Abaco island, Bahamas

ab-uh-koh / 'abakau / Abadan port, Iran

ab-uh-dahn / aba'du: n / Ahagnale Jr, Frank American conman ab-uhg-nayl / 'abegne11 / Abakan city, Russia

ab-uh-kahn /, aba'ka: n / abalone edible mollusc ab-uh-loh-ni /, aba'laoni /

Abancay city, Peru

Abbeville town, France ab-veel / ab'vi: l / Abbeville city, US ab-i-vil / 'abiv1l / abducens nerve cranial nerve

ab-dyoo-suhnz / ab'dju: sanz / Abdnllah II King of Jordan ab-dul-uh / ab'dAlo / Abdul Rahman, Thnku Malayan statesman

tuunk-oo ab-duul rah-muhn /, tonku:, abdo1 ‘ruzmenf Abednego biblical name ab-ed-nee-g0h / absd‘ni: gao / Commonly 5155 uh-bed-nuh-goh. Abel, Karl Fl'ie (ll'iCl'l German


karl freed-rikh ah-buhl /, ka: (r) l _fri: clric 'u: ba1 / Abel, Niels Henrik Norwegian mathematician

neelss hen-rik ah-buhl /, ni: ls _hsnrik 'a: bel / Abeokuta city, Nigeria ab-ay-ok-oo-tah / a'be1oku:, ta: / Sometimes anglicizcd to ab-i-oh-KOO -tuh.

Aberdonian relating to Aberdeen ab-uhr-doh-ni-uhn / _aba (r) 'deonian / Aberfan village, Wales ab-uhr-van / aba (r)' van / aberrant departing from accepted standard

uh-berr-uhnt / a'berant, '

ab-an-ky / aban'kA | / Abbas, Fer-hat Algerian nationalist

Abertawe Welsh name for Swansea

leader drove-hat uh-bass / fa (r), hat a'bas / Abbas, Mahmoud Palestinian

Aberystwytll town, Wales from — o'clock-is-with /, abar'1stw16 / Abia state, Nigeria from — i-uh / 'abia / Abidjan port, Cote d’Ivoire


makh-mood ab-ahss / max_mu: d a'bo: s / AIJIJC, Ernst German physicist

airnst ab — uh /, s: (r) nst 'abe / abbé abbot or other cleric ab-ay /' abe1 /

from-o'clock-tow-ay /, abar'taoe1 /

ab-ij-ahn / _abi'd3o: n / Abitlll ‘German examinations

ab-it-oor /, ab1'tua (r) / Abizaid, John American general

uh-biz-ayd / abr'zeid /

Abkhazia | Acebes, Angel


Abkhazia autonomous region, Georgia uhp-khah-zi-uh / ap'x: 1dbra / al dente cooked so as to be still fi rm when bitten al den-'tay / al'dsnte1 / alder tree

awl-duhr / 'o: lda (r) / Alder Hay hospital, England

awl-duhr-hay / _o: 1da (r) 'he1 / Alderney island, England awld-uhr-ni /': |: 1da (r) nij Aldi German discount store chain 8 | -di / 'a1di /

Aldis lamp trademark signaling lamp awl-diss / 'o: 1d1s / Aldiss, Brian English science fi ction writer awl-diss /' o: ldIs / Alegranza island, Spain al-eg-ran-thuh, fale'granl-lo, ’

aleikum esalaam Arabic greeting uh — lay-kuum ess — uh-lahm / a_lerkom sse‘1c1: m / Alenqon town, France al-ah (ng) -so (ng) / alo's5 / Alentejo region and former province, Portugal

al-en-tay-zhoo, / alsn'teI3u: / aleph letter of the Hebrew alphabet

ah-let / 'u: l £ f /' Aleppo city, Syria uh-lep-oh / a'1spau / Established anglicization. The Arabic name

is Halab, pronounced hah-lahb.

Alesi, Jean French racing driver

zhah (ng) al-ay-zi /, 3 £ i a'Ie1zi / Aletschhorn mountain, Switzerland ah-letch-horn / 'n: 1ctj ‘, h0: (r) n / Aleut ethnic group inhabiting the Aleutian Islands

al-i-oot / 'a1iu: t /

Aleutian Islands I allosaurus


Aligarh city, India

Aleutian Islands islands, US

ul-ig-ar / All'g (1Z (I ‘) / uh-loo — shuhn / a'1u: j‘an / Alexandre, Boniface Haitian president Alighieri, Dante Italian poet and writer

dan-tay al-ig-yair-i / ldantei alrgjezril

bon-if-ass al-uhk-sah (ng) d-Ruh / bonrfas alak‘sf1dra / Alexandria port, Egypt al-eg-zahn-dri-uh /, alsg'zc1: ndria /

Aline loch and river, Scotland al-in / 'al1n / Alitalia Italian airline al-it-ahl-i-uh / al1‘to: lia / aliyah immigration to Israel

'Established anglicization.

alfalfa leguminous plant

a | —fal-fuh / al'falfa / Alfa Romeo car manufacturer al — fuh Ruh-may-oh /, alfa ra'me1ao / Alfvén, Hannes Swedish physicist

uh-lee-yuh / a'ii: ja / Aliyev, Heydar Azerbaijani statesman hay-dar al-ee-yef /, heido: (r) a'1i: jsf / Allah ‘God’ (Arabic)

han-uhss al-vayr | / _hanas aI've1n /

uh-lah / a'lo: /

algae sing. alga sea-weed al-jee, sing. al-guh / 'aId3i: /, sing. / ‘Alga,’ The plural is commonly also

Algarve province, Portugal

al-garv / a1'gu: (r) v /, [al'garva] Q Established anglicization. algebra area of ​​mathematics al-juh-bruh / 'ald3abra / Algecii-as port, Spain

al-juh-sirr-uhss /, a1d3a's1ras /, [alxe'8iras] I Established anglicization.

Algeria country

al-jeer-i-uh / al'd3 | arie / ~ Established anglicization. Algiers capital of Algeria al-jeerz / al‘d3Ie (r) z / ~ Established anglicization. Algol star

al-gol / 'algn1 / Algonquin American Indian ethnic

group al-gunk-win / al'gn13kw1n; ' Algren, Nelson American novelist awl — gruhn / 'o: 1gran / alhaji Muslim who has been to Mecca uhl-haj-i / e1'had3i / Alhambra forti fi ed Moorish palace

al-ham-bruh / a1'hambra / Ali, Laila American boxer

lay-luh ah-lee /, 1e1la a: 'li: / Ali, Muhammad American boxer

muh-ham-uhd ah-lee / ma_hamad c1: 'li: / Alicante port, Spain

al-ik-an-ti / alrkanti /, [alrkante] 1 Established anglicization.


A more anglicized pronunciation, al-uh, is

sometimes also used.

Allahabad city, India a | ~ uh-huh-bahd /, a1aha'bu: d / Allawi, Iyad Iraqi politician

y — ad uh-lah-wi / mad a'lu: wi / allay diminish

uh-lay / a'le1 / Allegheny city, river, mountain, and college, US

al-uh-gayn-i / _ala'ge1ni / allegretto musical term

al — uh — gret — 0h /,ala'gr:.-ttaof Allegri, Gregorio Italian priest and composer greg-awr-i-oh al-eg-ri / gragozriao a'1egri / allegro musical term uh-leg-roh / a'legreo / allemande German dance al-mahnd, "almc1: nd, l Allende, Salvador Chilean statesman

sal-vad-or al-yend — ay / salva, do: (r) al'jende1 / allergen substance that causes an allergic reaction

al-uhr-juhn / 'ala (r) d3an / Allerod geological stage al-uh-roed /' alaro: d / Allie! ‘river, France

al-yay / al'je1 / Alliot-Marie, Michele French defense minister

mee-shel al-i-oh marr-ee / mi: _js1 ali, au ma'ri: / allosaurus carnivorous dinosaur al-uh-sawr-uhss /, alaso: res /

alloy I alumna alloy metal

al-oy / 'a1a1 / alloy mix to make an alloy uh-loy / a'loI / Almagest astronomical treatise

al-muh-jest / 'a1mad3est / almanac annual calendar awl-muh-nak /' o: lmanak / Commonly also ol-muh-nak and al-muh-nak.

Almaty city, Kazakhstan al-mah-‘tuh / al‘mn: to / Almeria town and province, Spain

al-merr-ee-uh /, a1ma'ri: a / almirall cupboard or wardrobe al-my-Ruh / 8l'1T1AII'8 / Almirante Brown city, Argentina

al-mirr-an-tay brown / almrranter 'braon / Almodovar, Pedro Spanish film director

ped-roh al-mod-oh-var /, pedreo a1mo'daovo: (r) / Almond, Marc English singer

ah-muhnd} 'o: n1and / almond nut ah-muhnd /' o: mand / Less commonly also ahl-muhnd or


alms money or food given to poor people ahmz jozmzj

Almqvist, Carl Jonas Love Swedish


alp dwez / _a1p ‘dwez! Alplla Centauri star

al-fuh sen-taw-ry /, alfa ssn'to: r1u / Alphaeus biblical name

a | -fee — uhss / al'fi: as / Alpheus Greek god

al-fee-uhss / al'fi: as / Alpujarras mountainous region, Spain

al-poo-kharr-ass / alpufxaras / 'Alsace region, France

a | —zass / al'zas / AlSl; 0l'n French engineering firm

al-stom / ‘alstom / Altai (also Altay) region, Russia

al-ty / al'tA1 / Altair star

aI ~ tair / 'alt £: (r) / Altamura town, Italy

al-tuh-moor-uh / alta'moara / Altdorfer, Albrecht German painter

al-brekht alt-dor-fahr /, a1brsct 'altdo: (r) fo (r) / Althing Icelandic parliament awl-thing /' o: lB1I] / Altl10l‘p family home of the Earl Spencer

awl-thorp / 'o: 1B :) :( r) p / The family pronunciation has traditionally always been awl-truhp, although awl-thorp

was usual for the village. In 2000 the estate released a press statement saying that

henceforth it would be known as awl-thorp, and we changed our recommendation accordingly.


Altlltlssel ‘, Louis French philosopher

karl yoo-nuhss loo-vuh aim-kvist

lwee al-tue-sair / _lwi: alty'se: (r) / altimeter instrument for recording altitude

/ _kua (r) l _ju: nas _1u: va 'almkv1st / aloe vera gelatinous substance al — oh veer-uh /, a1ao' v1are / aloha Hawaiian greeting

uh-loh-huh / a'1aohe /

al-ti-mee-tuhr / 'alt1mi: ta (r) / Altman, Robert American film director

aw | t — muhn / 'a: ltman /

alopecia partial or complete absence of hair al-uh-pee-shuh / _ala'pi: _ [a /

alto singing voice

Alor Setar city, Malaysia

al — tro0 — iz-uhm / 'a1tro1zam / aluminum metal

ah- | 0r suh-tar /, u: 1o: (r) sa'tc1: (r) / Alost see Aalst Aloysius British b0y’s name

al-oh-ish-uhss, / alao'1_ [as / alpaca South American mammal related to the llama at-pak-uh / a1'paka / Alpe (l’Hllez mountain, France

al-toh, "altao / altruism sel fl ess concern for others

al-oo-min-i-uhm / alu: 'm1niem / AM is usually (1l1L? 7Li1lZL fl1., pronounced

uh-loo-min-uhm. alumna pl. alumnae female former student uh-lum — nuh, pl. uh-lum-nee / 0'lAl1‘ll'19 /, pl. / ~ ni :, '

13 alumnus pi. alumni male former student

uh-lum-nuhss, pl. uh-Ium-ni / 9'lAI1’lI13S /, pl. / -ni / alveolus small cavity, pit, or hollow al-vi-oh-luhss, l, alvi'ao1as / Alwyn, William English composer

al-win / 'a1w1n,' A1zheimer's disease progressive mental deterioration

alts-hy-muhrz / 'altsh1urna (r) z,' Amal fi port, Italy uh-mal-fi / a‘ma1fi / amalgam a mixture or blend uh-ma! -guhm / a'malgam / Amalthea moon of Jupiter

am-uhl-thee-uh / ama1'9i: a / Amapa state, Brazil

am-uh-pah /, ama'po: / Amarah, al-town, Iraq

uhl uh ~ mar-uh / al a'mu: ra / amaretti Italian biscuits

am-uh-ret-i /, ama'reti, 'Amarillo city, US am-uh-ril-oh / ama'r11au / Amaterasu Shinto god uh-mah-tuh-rah ~ soo / a, mci: ta'ro : see below: / Amati Italian violin-maker

uh-mah-ti / a'mu: tif Amatola mountain range, South Africa

am-uh-toh-luh / ama'taole / 'Amazon river, South America

am-uh-zuhn] 'amazan / Amazonas state, Brazil

am-uh-zohn-uhss /, ama'zaonas / Ambala city and district, India

uhm — bah— | uh / am'bu: la / Ambanja town, Madagascar

uhm-bahn-juh / am'ba: nd3e / Ambato town, Ecuador am-bah-toh / am'bo: taU / Ambes town, France

ah (ng) -bess / € 1'bss / Ambohimanga city, Madagascar am-buu-hi-mang-guh / am, bohi'mar | ga / AJl1l) 0Il island, Indonesia

am-bon / am'bnn / Amchitka island, US

am-chit-kuh / am'tI1tka / Amec British engineering company

am-ek / 'amsk /

alumnus | Amirante Islands ameliorate make better uh-mee — Ii-uh-rayt / a'mi: liareIt / amen uttered at the end of a prayer

ahgmen / o: 'msn /

W pi



Commonly also ay-men.

Amenabar, Alejandro Spanish film director

al-ekh-and-roh am-en-ah-bar / ale fl xandrao ams'no: bu: (r) / Amenhotep Egyptian pharaoh

ah ~ muhn-hoh-tep /, ci: man'heotep / americium chemical element

am-uh — riss — i-uhm /, ama'r1siam /

Ames city, Iowa eymz / e1mz / Ameslan American Sign Language am-uhss-Ian / 'amaslan / amethyst precious stone am-uh-thist /' ama01st / Amharic Ethiopian language

am-harr-ik / am'harrk / Amherst town, US

am — uhrst / 'ama (r) st / Amicus trade union for manufacturing and technical workers

am-ik-uhss / 'am1kas / amicus curiae pl. amici curiae friends of the court ’(Latin)

uh-my-kuhss kyoor-i-ee, pl. uh-mee-see / amiukes' kjoarii: /, pl. / a, mi: si: / Legal Latin is openly anglicized; see LATIN panel. A more classical pronunciation,

uh-mee-kuhss kyoor-i-y, pl. uh-mee-ki, is also possible.

Amiens town, France am-ya (ng) / am'jé / Amin, Idi Ugandan dictator

ee-di uh-meen / _i: di a'mi: n / Amindivi Islands group of islands, India

am-in-dee-vi /, amm'di: vi / amino class of acids

uh-mee-noh / a'mi: nau / Less coinmonly also uh-myn-oh.

amir Muslim title uh-meer / a'm1a (r) /

Amirante Islands group of islands, Seychelles

am-irr-ant / 'am1rant /

Amis, Kingsley | anaesthetic Amis, Kingsley English writer

king-zli ay-miss / _kn] zli'e1m1s / Amish Christian sect

ah-mish / 'o: rmI / Amman capital of Jordan uh-mahn / a'mo: n / ammeter instrument for measuring electric current am-muh-tuhr /' amata (r) / amniocentesis process in which amniotic fl uid is sampled

am-ni-oh-sen-tee-siss f, amniaosen'ti: s1s / Amoco British oil company

am — uh-koh / 'amaka0 / amoeba pl. amoebae single-celled animal

uh-mee-boo, pl. uh-mee ~ bee / e'mi: ba /, pl. / -bi: / ~ Standard -s plural is also possible. amontillado Spanish sherry

uh-mon-til-ah-doh / a, mnnt1'lc1: dah /, [am0nti '/ Kaoo] I Established anglicization. Amos Hebrew prophet

ay-moss / 'e1mns / Amos, Baroness Guyanese-born politician

ay-moss / 'e1mos / amoxicillin penicillin

uh-moks-i-sil-in / a, mnksi's1lm / Amoy another name for Xiamen uh-moy / a'mo1 / Ampere, André-Marie French physicist

ah (ng) -dray marr-ee ah (ng) -pair / r'1, dre1 ma_ri: (1'ps: (r) / ampere unit of electric current am-pair / 'amps: (r),'

ampersand sign 8: am-puhr-sand / 'ampa (r) sand / amphibious suited for both land and water

am-fib-i-uhss / am'fibias / Amphitrite Greek goddess am- fi t-ry-ti /, amf1'tr1uti / amphora pl. amphorae ancient Greek or Roman jug


am-pool / 'ampu: l / Sometimes also amp-yool.

AMRAAM Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile

am-ram / 'amram / Alnritsal ‘city, India

um-rit-suhr / am'r1tsa (r) / Amstel river, Netherlands

am — stuhl / 'amstaI / 0 Established anglicization. Amsterdam capital of the Netherlands am-stuhr-dam / 'amsta (r) dam /, [, clmstar‘dom] Established anglicization. A more Dutch

pronunciation, with stress on the last

syllable, is also common. Amll Darya river, central Asia

ah-moo dar-i-uh / _o: mu: 'dn; ria / amulet small piece ofjewellery

am-yoo-Iuht / 'amjo1at / Amun-Ra ancient Egyptian god am-uhn rah /, aman' ra: / Amundsen, Roald Norwegian explorer

roo-al ah-muun-suhn /, ru: al ‘uzmunsanf Amtlr river, NE Asia uh-moor / a'mue (r), /

amygdala pl. amygdalae part of the brain

uh-mig-duh-luh, pl. uh-mig-duh-lee / 9'm1gd-ale /, pl. / -1i: /

Anabaptism doctrine that baptism should only be administered to believing adults an-uh-bap — tiz — uhm /, ana'bapt | zam / anachronism thing appropriate to a period other than that in which it exists uh-nak-Ruh-niz-uhm / a'nakra, n1zam / Anacreon Greek poet

uh-nak-ri-uhn / a'nakrian / Anadyr city and river, Russia

uh-nad-eer / a'nadia (r) /

pl. / -ri: /

anemia de fi ciency of red cells or of hemoglobin in the blood uh-nee-mi-uh / a‘ni: mia / anaesthesia insensitivity to pain an-iss-thee-zi-uh /, anis'0i: zia /

Q Standard -s plural is also possible.

anesthetic substance that induces

am-fuh-Ruh, pl. am-fuh-ree / 'amfara /, ampoule glass capsule containing a


insensitivity to pain

an-iss-thet-ik /, an1s'9stIk /

anesthetist | Andorra


anesthetist one who administrators


uh-neess-thuh-tist / a'ni: s9at1st / Anaglypta trademark type of wallpaper

an-uh-glip-tuh /, ana'gl1pta / Anah, al- town, Iraq uhl an-uh / ai 'ane /

Anaheim city, US an-uh-hym / 'anahAIm / analgesia inability to feel pain an-uhl-jee-zi-uh, l, anal‘d3i: zia / analogue a person or thing seen as

comparable to another an-uh-log / ‘analog / 'Anambra state, Nigeria

a n-am-bruh / a'nambra / ananda extreme happiness

ah-nun-duh / ClZ'I1AI1Cl9 / Ananias biblical name an-uh-ny-uhss /, ana‘n1i1as /

an-ky-seez / an'k1 \ 1si: z / anchorite religious recluse

ank-uh-ryt / 'a1] kerAIt / anchovy small shoaling fi sh

an-chuh-vi / 'antj "avi / The old-fashioned pronunciation an-choh-vi is rarely heard now.

ancillary providing support to the primary activities of an organization an — Sil ~ uh-ri / an'si1ari / Ancona port, Italy

an k — Oh-nuh / a1] 'kaona / Ancre river, France

ah (ng) -kruh / 'f1kra / Andalusia region, Spain

an-duh-loo-si-uh /, anda'1u: sia / Established anglicization. The Spanish form is Andalucia, and is pronounced

an-dal-oo-see-uh locally, and an-dal-oo-thee-uh in standard Spanish.

Anantnag province, Kashmir

Andalusian relating to Andalusia uh-nunt-nuhg / a'nAntnag / an-duh-lo0-si-uhn /, anda'1u: sian / anapaest metrical foot Andaman and Nicobar Islands an-uh-peest / 'anapi: st / groups of islands, Bay of Bengal and-uh-muhn nik-uh-bar / 'andaman Commonly also an-uh-pest. 'mkabo: (r) / anaphora use of a word referring back to andante musical term a word used earlier an-dan-tay / an'dante1,' uh-naf-uh-Ruh / a'nafera / anaphylaxis extreme allergic reaction

an-uh ~ fil-ak-siss /, anaf1'1aks1s / anaptyxis insertion of a vowel to aid pronunciation an-uhp-tik-SiSS / _anap't1ksIs / Anastacia American pop singer an-uh-stay-zhuh / ana'stei3a / Anastasia Russian princess

an-uh-stah-si-uh / ana'sto: sia / anastrozole breast cancer drug uh — nast-Ruh-zohl, / a'nastrazaol / Anatolia western peninsula ofAsia an-uh-toh-Ii-uh /, ana ' taolie / Anaxagoras Greek philosopher an — ak — sag-uh-Ruhss /, anak'sageras / Anaximander Greek scientist an-ak-sim — and-uhr / a_naks1'mande (r) / Anaximenes Greek philosopher an-a k — sim- uh-neez /, anak's1meni: z / Anbar, al- province, Iraq

uhl uhn-bar / el an'bu: (r), l Anchises Greek mythological character

Andean relating to the Andes

an-dee-uhn / an'di: an / Sometimes also an-di-uhn.

Andel fi ngen district, Switzerland

an-duhl-fing-uhn / ‘anda1, f1nan / Andersen, Hans Christian Danish author

hanz krist — yuhn an — duhr-suhn /, hanz, kr | stjen 'anda (r) san /

'Established anglicization. Andes mountain system, South America

and-eez / 'andi: z /' Established anglicization.

Andhra Pradesh state, India

ahn-druh pruh-daysh /, c1: ndra pre'de1I / Andijan city, Uzbekistan

uhn-dij-ahn / andI'd3u: n / andiron metal stand an-dy-uhn / ‘and / item Andorra autonomous principality between France and Spain an-dawr-uh / an'do: ra /

andouille | Annapolis Commonlyialso an-dorr-uh.


ang-kor / 'ank0: (r) /

andouille type of pork sausage o (ng) -dwee / i1'dwi: /, French [f1'duj]

Anglesey island and county, Wales

Andress, Ursula Swiss actress

Angola country

ur-syuul-uh and-ress /, a: (r) sju1a 'andrEs / v Established anglicization. Andrié, Ivo Bosnian writer ee-voh and-ritch /, i: vao 'andrrtj' / Androcles Roman fi ctional name

and-Ruh-kleez / 'andrak1i: zl androgen male sex hormones

and-Ruh-juhn / 'andracl3an / Andromache Greek mythological


an-drom-uh-ki / an'dromaki / Andromeda Greek mythological character

an-drom-uh-duh / an'drnmade / Andropov, Yuri Soviet statesman

yoor-i an-drop-u hf / _juari an'drnpaf / anechoic free from echo

an-ek-oh-ik / ana'kau1k, I anemometer instrument for measuring wind speed an-uh-mom-it-uhr /, ane'mnm1ta (r), /

anemone plant uh-nem-uh ~ ni / a'nsmeni / aneurysm swelling of the wall of an artery

an-yuu-riz-uhm / 'anjur1zam / Angelico, Fra Italian painter

frah an-jel — ik — oh /, fru: an'd3s11keu / Angel fl n, Maya American novelist

and poet

my-uh an-juh-loo /, m: ua 'and3alu: / Angers town, France ah (ng) -zhay / fi'3 e1 / Angers, Avril English actress

av-reel ang-guhrz /, avri: l 'anga (r) z / Angevin dynasty of English kings an-juh-vin /' and3evm / 'Established anglicization. Angharad Welsh girl’s name

ang-harr-ad / ar] 'harad / angina medical condition

an-iy-nuh / an'd3nine / angioplasty surgical unblocking of a blood vessel

an-ji-oh-plast-i / 'and3ieo_p1asti / Angkor capital of the ancient kingdom of


ang-guhl-si / 'angalsi / ang-goh-luh / an'geula / angora cat, goat, or rabbit of a long-haired breed

ang-gawr-uh / an'g0: ra /

Angstrom, Anders Jonas Swedish physicist

an-duhrsh yoo-nuhss ong-stroem /, ande (r) _f, ju: nas' m] strom / angstrom unit of length

ang-struhm / 'anstram / Anguilla island, the Caribbean

ang-gwil-uh / ar] 'gwIla / Anhui province, China an-khway /, an'xwer / animadversion criticism or censure an-im-uhd-vur-shuhn / _an1mad've: (r) _l'an / animatronics technique of making and operating lifelike robots an-im-uh — tron ​​— iks /, an1ma'trnn1ks / animé Japanese animation an-im-ay / 'anImeI / anion negatively charged ion an-y-uhn /'3.l' | AI3! 1 / anise Mediterranean plant

an-iss / 'an1s / Anisoptera group of insects

an-y-zop-tuh-Ruh /, anA1'znptare, 'AnjOll former province, France

ah (ng) -zhoo / f1'3u :; ‘Ankara capital of Turkey

ank-uh-Ruh Fankarej ilnkh cross-like design

ank / a1] k /

ankylosaur herbivorous dinosaur ank-il-uh-sor / 'ai] kr1as: |: (r) / ankylosis stiffening of a joint

ank-il-oh-siss / _ai] k1'laos1s / Annaba port, Algeria an-uh-buh / 'anaba / Anna Karenina novel by Tolstoy

an-uh kuh-ren-in-uh / _ana ka‘rsn1naj Q Established anglicization. Annan, Ko fi Ghanaian Secretary General of the United Nations koh-fi an-an /, kaofi 'anan [

Annapolis city, US uh-nap-uh-liss / a'napalIs /



Anglicization When the Pronunciation Unit advises on the pronunciation of foreign

names, words, and phrases, we make recommendations which are as close as possible to the original language. However, we do not expect a perfect reproduction of all non-English sounds. This would be contusing and disruptive for audiences and would also be quite a challenge for broadcasters! Therefore, our recommendations include anglicizations which make speaking and understanding easier. Some simpli fi cation is also necessary to give written advice for pronunciations using a breathing system. Our breathing system includes English sounds and also some other consonant and vowel sounds,

for instance the Welsh hl as in llan and the French oe as in coeuar.

Established anglicization of names Many names of foreign countries, rivers, and cities have established

anglicizations: that is, standard ways in which they are pronounced or spelled when they are referred to in English. These established anglicizations are those listed in gazetteers, atlases, and dictionaries. Examples include parr-iss (not parr-ee) for Paris and tib-lee-si for Tbilisi. Examples of established anglicized spellings (for which the pronunciations also differ, of course) include Turin for Torino, Munich for

Munich, and Lyons for Lyon. Where these names appear in this book the native version and an approximate pronunciation is given in a usage note. It is important to note that established anglicizations are

not invariably used in an English-language context: for example, the football team of the city Basel is called FC Basel. The Pronunciation Unit’s recommendations take all these established anglicizations into account. Anglicizations for major place names are usually uncontroversial, but can change over time (e.g. Marseilles, Niger; Majorca). Of fi cial spellings or transliterations of

Names can also change (e.g. Kollcata, Beijing), which can lead to further changes in established anglicized pronunciations. Less commonly, anglicization can apply to people’s names as well as place names (e.g. Michael Schumacher); This is particularly common with high-profile people in the areas of international sport, show business, and politics. We research the level of anglicization which a particular person prefers for their name before making recommendations.

Established anglicization of words and phrases Words and phrases in languages ​​other than English often appear in an English — language context. Topics such as music, science, literature,

Annapurna I Antananarivo


food and drink, dance, and sport provide many examples. When these words are treated as foreign the Pronunciation Unit makes recommendations which are as close as possible to the original language, subject to the usual simpli fi cations. However, when these words and phrases are taken into English they are generally pronounced using only English sounds, and in such cases a more anglicized recommendation is more appropriate. For example, the French phrase trompe I’aeil is usually pronounced tromp loy in English, rather than tro (ng) p loey. As with place names, these anglicizations too can change over time. The, title of the Spanish novel Don Quixote used to be anglicized to don

, kwik-sot, but this is now rather dated, and don kee-hoh-ti is the angli ~ cization we now recommend. Words borrowed from other languages ​​are often initially given foreign pronunciations, and then anglicizations

‘Become established: sudo / cu is an excellent example of this.

Annapurna mountain, Nepal

aniuphjpoor-nuh /, ana'poa (r) na /

sometimes anglieized to alniolhipur-noh.l it annatto orange-red dye

uh-nat-oh / a'nataU / anneal heat and then cool slowly

uh-neel / a'ni: 1 / Annecy town, France

an-see / an'si: / Annigoni, Pietro Italian painter

pyet-roh an-ig-oh-ni /, pjetrao an1'geuni / annihilate destroy utterly

uh-ny-il-ayt f8'I1AIIl9Ii / Annobén island, Equatorial Guinea

an-uh-bon / ana'bon / Anno Domini ‘in the year of the Lord’ (Latin)

an-oh dom-in-y / _aneu 'dummru / annus horribilis ‘disastrous year’ (Latin)

an-uhss horr-ee-bi! -iss /, anas hn'ri: bIl1s / annus mirabilis 'auspicious year' (Latin) an-uhss mirr-rah-bil-iss /, anas m1'ra: b111s / anode positively charged electrode an — ohd / 'anaod / anodyne not likely to cause offense

an — uh-dyn / 'anedA1n / anomaly deviates from what is standard uh-nom-uh-Ii / e'nome1i /

anopheles mosquito uh-nof-il-eez / a'nnfili: z / anorexia nervosa pathological slimming compulsion

an-uh-rek-si-uh nur-voh-suh /, ane_rsksIe na: (r) 'veuse / Anouilh, Jean French dramatist

zhah (ng) an-wee /, 3f1 an'wi: /, [anuj] ANOVA statistical analysis of variance

an — oh-vuh / a'naova / Ansar al-Islam Iraqi militant group un — sar uhl iss-lahm / Al'l'S (1Z (I ') al 1s‘lc1: m / Anschluss annexation of Austria by Germany in 1938

an-shluuss / 'an_f1os / Anselm, St Italian-born philosopher and theologian

an-selm / ‘anselm, 'Anshan city, China

an-shan /, an'Ian / Antabuse trademark for disul fi ram ant-uh-byooss / 'antabju: s;' antacid preventing acidity an-tass — id / an'tasId / Antaeus Greek mythological character

an-tee-uhss / an'ti: as / Antalya port, Turkey

an-tal-yu h / an'ta1ja / Antananarivo capital of Madagascar un-tun-uh-nuh-ree-voo / 1in, tAnana'ri: vu: /

Antares | APEC


Antares star an-tar-eez / an'tu: ri: z / antebellum occurring before a war

an-ti-bel-uhm /, anti'bslam / antecedent thing that precedes another an — tiss — ee-duhnt /, ant1‘si: dant, 'antepenult the last syllable but two in a word

an-tip-uh-nult / _antIpa'n / ilt / Anthemius Greek mathematician

an-thee-mi-uhss / an'Bi: mies / anthracite coal of a hard variety an-thruh-sy‘t / 'anBrasA1t / anthrax serious bacterial disease

an-thraks / 'an9raks / Antibes port and resort, France

ah (ng) -teeb / fi 'ti: b / anticipatory happening in anticipation of something

an-tiss-ip-uh-tuh-ri / an't1sipa_tari ,! Antigone Greek mythological character

an-tig-uh-ni / an'ugani / Antigua town, Guatemala an-teeg-wuh / an'ti: gwa /

Antigua and Barbuda island state, Leeward Islands

an-tee-guh / an'ti: ga / Antilles group of islands, West Indies

an-til-eez / an't1li: z / 8IltiIn8.CaSS fl. l piece of cloth put over the

back of a chair

an-ti-muh-kass-uhr /, antima'kasa (r) / antimony chemical element an — tim-uh-ni Fantlmanij Antioch city, Turkey

ant-i-ok, I'antink / antipathy feeling of aversion an-tip-uh-thi / an'tlpe6i / antiphon short sentence sung before or after a psalm an-tif-uhn / 'ant1fan / Antipodes Australia and New Zealand

an-tip-uh-deez / an't1padi: z / Antisthenes Greek philosopher and teacher

an-tiss-thuh-neez / an't1s9ani: z / antithesis pl. antitheses opposite

an-tith-uh-siss, pl. an-tith-uh = seez / an'ti8asls /, pl. / -si: z / Antlia constellation an-tli-uh / 'antlia /

Antofagasta port, Chile ant-of-ag-ast-uh /, antofa'gasta / Antoninus Pius Roman emperor

an-tuh-ny-nuhss py-uhss /,anta,n.\mas' pAI9S / Antonioni, Michelangelo Italian film director

meek-uh-Ian-juh-Ioh an-toh-ni-oh-ni / mi: ka, land3alau antaunieunil Antwerp port, Belgium ant-wurp / 'answer: (r) p ,! Established anglicization. The Flemish name is Antwerpen, pronounced unt-wairp-uhn, and the French form is Anvers, pronounced ah (ng) -vair.

Anubis Egyptian god of the dead

uh-nyoo-biss / a'nju: b1s / Anuradhapura city and district, Sri Lanka

an-uu-rahd-u h-poor-uh; ', anu: ru: da'poara / Anvers see Antwerp Anwar, Mina English actress

mee-nuh an-war / _mi: na 'anwu: (r) / Anzoétegui state, Venezuela an-swat-eg-ee / ans'wategi: / ao dai Vietnamese long-sleeved tunic

ow dy / ‘av, dz \ 1 / Aoraki of fi cial name for Mount Cook, New Zealand

ow-rak-i / au'raki / aorta main artery of the body ay-or-tuh / e1'0: (r) ta / Aosta city, Italy

ah-ost-u h / u: 'nsta / Aotearoa Maori name for New Zealand

ow-tay-uh-roh-uh / ao, teia'raoa / Aozou Strip disputed desert land, Chad ow-zoo / au'zu: / Apache American Indian ethnic group uh-patch-i / a'pat _ \ 'i / apartheid South African policy of segregation uh-part ~ hayt / a'pu: (r) the1t / This is the Afrikaans pronunciation, and the one most common in English. Less common

is uh-part-hyd.

apatosaurus herbivorous dinosaur uh-pat-uh-sawr-uhss] e_pata's0: ras / APEC Asia-Paci fi c Economic Co-operation ay-pek / 'e1pek /

Apeldoorn I appoggiatura


Apeldoorn town, Netherlands

part of the accepted canon of Scripture

ap-uhl-dorn / 'apaldo: (r) n / Apelles Greek painter

uh-pok-rif-uh / a‘pokrrfa / apogee highest point

Established anglicization. The Italian name

ap-uh-jee / 'apad3i: / Apollinaire, Guillaume French poet gee-yohm ap-ol-ee-nair / gigjaum apoli:' ne: (r) /

is Appennino, pronounced ap-en-ee-noh.

Apollinaris bishop of Laodicea in Asia

uh-pel-eez / e'ps1i: z / Apennines mountain range, Italy

ap-uh-nynz / 'apanA1nz /

aperitif alcoholic drink taken before a meal uh-perr-it-eef / a, per1'ti: f / aphasia impaired speech after brain damage uh-fay-zi-uh / a‘fe | zia, f aphelion pl. aphelia point furthest from the sun

ap-hee-Ii-uhn, pl. ap-hee-li-uh

Apollyon name for the Devil

uh-pol-yuhn / a'po1jan / apophthegm concise saying or maxim

ap-uh-them / 'ape6em / apoplectic overcome with anger

apostasy abandonment of a religious or

fl pl10l'iSm pithy observation

af-uh-riz-uhm / 'afar1zam / aphrodisiac substance that stimulates sexual desire af-Ruh — diz-i-ak /, afre'd1ziak / Aphrodisias ancient city of Asia Minor

af-Ruh-diss-i-uhss /, afra'd1sios / Aphrodite Greek goddess af-Ruh-dy-ti /, afra'dA1ti / Api mountain, Nepal ah-pi / 'u: pi / Apia capital of Samoa

political belief

uh-pO5t — uh-Si / a'postasi, l apostolic relating to the Apostles

ap-uh-stol-ik /, apa'stol1k / apostrophe punctuation mark

uh-post-Ruh-fi / e'pnstrafi / apothecary person who prepared and sold medicines uh-poth-uh-kuh-ri / a'poBakari / apotheosis highest point

uh-poth-i-oh-siss / a, pnHi'aus1s / Appalachian Mountains mountain

ah-pee-uh / c1: 'pi: e /

system, North America

apiary place where bees are kept

ap-uh-lay-chuhn /.apa'le1t_[an/

ay-pi-uh-ri / 'e1piori /

Appaloosa North American breed of horse ap-uh-loo-suh /, apa‘lu: sa /

apical relating to an apex

ap-ik-uhl / 'ap1kal / Apis Egyptian mythological god ah-piss, l'u: p1s /

ap-uh-loh-ni-uhss / _apa'1aonias /

ap-uh — p | ek-tik /, apa'plekt1k /

/ ap'hi: lien /, pl. / -lia /

Sometimes also ay-pik-uhl;

Minor uh-p0l-ln-air-iss / e, pol1'na: r1s / Apollonius Greek mathematician

W "V W * 7 '


apnea temporary cessation of breathing

ap-nee-uh / ap'ni: a / Sometimes also ap-ni-uh.

apocalypse destruction on a catastrophic scale

uh-pok-uh-lips / a'pt> kal1ps / apocope omission ofthe fi nal sound of a word uh ~ p0k-uh-pi / a'pokapi / apocrinc relating to a type of skin cell ap-uh-kryn, / ' apakr1un / Apocrypha biblical writings not forming

appellant person who appeals to a

higher court

uh — pel — uhnt / e‘palant / appellation name or title

ap-uh-lay-shuhn /, apa'le1j‘an / appendectomy removal of the appendix

ap-en-dek-tuh-mi f_apen‘dsktami / Appenzell canton, Switzerland

ap-uhn-tsel / 'apantss1 / Appian Way road southward from


ap-i-uhn / 'apian / applique ornamental needlework uh-plee-kay / a'pli: ke1 /

appoggiatura musical term uh-poj-uh-tyoor-uh / a, ppd3a'tjuara /

apricot | arbitrary


apricot fruit ay-prik-oht / ‘e1pr1kot / Sometimes also ap-rik-ot.

a priori knowledge which comes from theoretical deduction ay pry-avvlry /, e1 pr1ni: ErA1 / Also ah pri-aw-ri.

speaking of reference to

a-pruh-poh /, apra'pao / Apuleius Roman writer

ap-yuui-ee-uhss / _apjo'1i: as, 'Apulia region, Italy

uh-pyoo-Ii-uh / a'pju: 1ia / Established anglicization. The Italian name is Puglia, pronounced pool — yuh ['pu / Ma].

Apurimac region, Peru

ap-oo-ree-mak / apu: 'ri: mak / Apus constellation

ay ~ puhss / 'e | pas / Aqaba port, Jordan ak-uh ~ buh fl akebef Aqsa, al- Palestinian militant group uhl uk-suh / a1'Akse / Aquae Sulis Roman name for Bath

ak-vvy soo-liss /, akw1u 'su: l1s / aquamanile water container

ak-wuh-muh-ny-Ii / _akwama'n1 \ 11i / Aquarius constellation

uh-kwair-i-uhss / a‘kwe: rias / aquatic relating to water uh-kwat-ik / e'kwatIk / Less commonly also uh-kwot-ii;

aquavit Scandinavian spirit

ak-wuh-veet / akwa'vi: t / aqua vitae spirit

ak-wuh vy-tee /, akwe 'v1nti: / Sometimes also vee »ty; see Latin panel. aqueous of or containing water

ay-kwi — uhs $ / ‘e1kwias / Aquila constellation

ak — wil — uh / 'akwi1a / Aquila city, Italy

ak-wee-luh / 'akwi: 1a / Aquinas, St Thomas Italian philosopher uh-kwyn-uhss / a'kwAInas / Aquitaine region and former province, France

ak-wi-tayn /, akwi'tem /, [akiten]

'Established anglicization.

Ara constellation ar-uh, / 'o: ra / Arabiyah, al-Arabic TV station

uhl arr-ab-ee-yuh / al ara'bi: je / Aracaju port, Brazil

arr-uh-kuh-zhoo /, arake'3u: / Arachne Greek mythological character

uh-rak-ni / a'rakni / arachnophobia fear of spiders

uh-rak-nuh-foh-bi-uh / a_rakne'faobia / Arafat, Mount Mountain, Saudi Arabia

arr-uh-fat / 'arafat /, Arabic [? ara'faa: t] l Established anglicization. Arafat, Yasser Palestinian statesman

yah-sirr arr-uh-fat /, ju: srr 'arafat /, Arabic Ljaezsir? ara'fw: t] v Established anglicization. Ara fi ira Sea sea between Australia,

Indonesia, and New Guinea arr-uh-fo0r-uh /, ara'foaro / Aragon autonomous region, Spain

arr-uh-guhn / 'arogan / Aragorn character from The Lord qfthe Rings

arr-uh — gorn / 'arag :) :( r) n / Ara] Sea inland sea, central Asia

arr-uhl / 'ara1 / Aramaic ancient Semitic language arr-uh-may-ik / _ara'menk / Aramis character in The Three Musketeers

arr-uh-miss / "ararn1s / Aranyaka Hindu sacred treatise

arr-uhn-yak-uh /, ara'njaka / Arapaho North American Indian people

uh-rap-uh-hoh / a'rapahao / Ararat, Mount volcanic peaks, Turkey arr-uh-rat / 'ararat /

araucaria tree arr-aw-kair-i-uh / _ar ::: 'ke: ria / Arawak South American ethnic group

arr-uh-wak / 'arawak / Arbil see Erbil arbitrage simultaneous buying and selling in different markets

ar-bit-rahzh / 'a: (r) b1tru: 3 / Sometimes also ar-bit-ri}.

arbitrary random

ar-bit-Ruh-ri / 'a: (r) b1trari /





Arabic belongs to the Semitic family of languages. With over 150 million native speakers, it is one of the world's major languages. There are two main forms of Arabic, literary Arabic and colloquial Arabic. Literary Arabic is the standard form: it is the language of the Koran, and is used in the media. Colloquial Arabic comprises the various spoken dialects in everyday usage. Giving recommendations for Arabic pronunciation is complicated by the fact that there is so much variation between different forms of Arabic. Also, our advice is based on spellings transliterated into the l Roman alphabet, but the transliterations used can be inconsistent and ‘arbitrary. The Arabic given here is, as always, somewhat anglicized in line with BBC policy and the constraints of phonetic respelling.

Vowels Literary Arabic has three vowels, which can be either long or short, although the quality of these vowels, particularly A, can be realized in many different ways. A is generally pronounced a when short and ah when long. Mohammed is moh-ham-uhd, and Talabani is tah-luh-bah-ni. Short A is sometimes closer to u, next to certain consonants. Qadri is

kud-ri. Long A is sometimes closer to air, but when no R is present in the orthography, we render this sound as ah. This retains the length (which determines stress), but compromises the quality. I is pronounced i when short and ee when long. U is pronounced uu when short and 0o when long. Colloquial Arabic also allows for E and O. E is pronounced e when short and close to ay when long. O is pronounced o when short, and close to oh or aw when long. Some of these vowel qualities are commonly reduced to schwa (uh) in anglicized Arabic. Arabic has two diphthongs. Variously translated as AI, AY, EI, or

EI, the first of these is commonly pronounced y in literary Arabic, and ay in colloquial Arabic. This why it is so common to hear names like Mohamed ElBamdez 'pronounced both barr-uh-dy and barr-uh-day. The. other diphthong is transliterated AU or AW, and is pronounced ow in literary Arabic, and oh in colloquial Arabic.

Consonants The Arabic alphabet contains all the consonant sounds of English



apart from g, p, and v. There are also many sounds which do not occur ~ in English, some of which are difficult to represent in the respelling. All instances of kh refers to the sound in Scottish loch, never to that of German ich. B, D, F, K, L, M, N, T, and Z are pronounced as in English in anglicized Arabic. DII is pronounced th as in there. GH is pronounced as kh, but with added voicing (i.e. pronounced with vibration of the vocal chords. IPA is [Y]). This sound is always anglicized to g. H is pronounced as h, but can appear in any position in Arabic. We tI'y to reflect this in names such as / lhmed, although due to the restrictions of the respellings we represent this sound as kh in this dictionary. This is not ideal, but is better than leaving it out altogether. J and DJ are pronounced j. In North African dialects, where there is in fl uence from French, J is often pronounced zh. KH is pronounced kh. ‘Q is pronounced as k, but further back in the mouth (IPA is [q]). This

sound is always anglicized to k. SH is pronounced sh, but beware of syllable breaks between S and H. [sham is iss-hahm. TH is pronounced th.


'Is a voiced pharyngeal fricative (IPA is [i']). This is not always tran-

scribed, and is sometimes expressed as an A in the spelling instead, for example Ba.’th or Baath. This is not a sound we can retain in anglicized pronunciations. The L in the article al / el is silent before the so-called sun letters, i.e. the sounds t, th, d, th, 2, s, sh, I, n, and zh. Al-Zarqawi is uh-zuhr-kah-wi. In a native pronunciation the initial consonant of the following word is doubled to compensate (see more about long Arabic consonants below). This phenomenon is sometimes re fl ected in the transliteration, and so the Iraqi city Najafmay be spelt an-Najaf as well as al-Najajf

Stress Stress is determined by syllable length and structure, but as a general guide stress is placed on the last syllable containing a long vowel or on the vowel immediately preceding a doubled consonant. As with Italian, the double consonant is not a feature we can retain. Faruq is farr-ook and Muammar is moo-um-o'clock. If all vowels and consonants are short, and the word has more than two syllables, stress falls on the antepenultimate syllable. Hana fi is han-at-i.

A1-bois I Argentine


Arbois city, France ar-bwah / u: (r) 'bwu :; ’arborea] living in trees ar-baw-ri-uhl / u: (r)' bo: riolf Arbuthnot, John Scottish physician and writer

ar-buth-nuht / u: (r) 'bA6nat / Arcadia mountainous district, Greece

ar-kay-di-uh / u: (r) 'ke1dia / 0 Established anglicization. Arcady ideal rustic paradise ar-kuh-di l‘u: (r) kadi / arcana secrets or mysteries ar-kay-nuh, 'u: (r)' keina /

ar-den / u: (r) 'den / Ard Fheis an Irish party political conference ard esh / o: (r) d' s_l '/


ark duh tree-o (ng) f / _u: (r) k de tri: ':'> f / Archaean geological term

ar-kee-uhn / u: (r) 'ki: an / archeopteryx prehistoric bird ar-ki-op-tuh-riks / _u: (r) ki'nptar1ks / archaic old or old ~ fashioned

ar-kay-ik / a: (r) 'kenk /

/ _c |: (r) dne'ma: (r) xan / are unit of measurement ar / u: (r) / Arena], Mount volcano, Spain arr-en-al / are'nal / Arendt, Hannah German— born American philosopher

ar-uhnt / 'o: ront / areola pl. areolae small circular area

uh-ree-uh-luh, pl. uh-ree-uh-lee

Archangel port, Russia

ark-ayn-juhl / 'u: (r) ke Ind3el / Established anglicizatiodiillussian I name is Arkhangelsk, pronounced

ar-khan-guhlsk [8I "X3I‘lQjll5Sl {].

/ a'ri: ale /, pl. / -1i: / Areopagitica poem by Milton arr — i-op-uh-jit-ik-uh /, arinpe'd3Itika / Commonly also arr-i-op-uh-git-ik ~ uh.

Arequipa city, Peru

archangel angel of greater than ordinary rank

ark-ayn-juhl / ‘o: (r) kemd3al / T

Archilochus Greek poet

ar-kil — uh-kuhss /o.:(r)'k1lakas/ Archimedes Greek mathematician ar-kim-ee-deez / _Cl1 (I ') l (I'ITli2Cll2Z / archipelago group of islands ar-kip-el-uh -goh / _u: (r) k1'palagau / archivist person who maintains archives ar — kiv-ist / 'o: (r) k1v1st / archosaur reptile ar-kuh-sor /' o: (r) kaso: (r) / ARCIC Anglican Roman Catholic

International Commission ar-kik / 'c |: (r) k1k / Arctogaea zoogeographical area ark-tuh-jee-uh / _o: (r) kta'd3i: a / Arcturus star

Ardea village, Italy

France, and Luxembourg

ar-diz-oh-ni / _c1: (r) di'zauni / Ardnamurchan peninsula, Scotland

in Paris

ark-tyoor-uhss fu: (r) k'tjoaras /

Ardennes forested region in Belgium,

Ardizzone, Edward British artist

Arc de TI'i0n'lpl‘le ceremonial arch


ar-day-uh / 'u: (r) de1a / Ardeche river and department, France ar-desh / c1: (r)' ds_f /

arr — ek — ee-puh / _ara'ki: pe / Ares Greek god air — eez / 's: ri: z,' aréte sharp mountain ridge

uh-ret / e'ret, l Arezzo city and football club, Italy uh-ret-s0h / a'rstseo / Argeles-Gazost resort, France

ar-zhuh-less gaz-ost / u: (r) 3a, las ga'znst / argent silver

ar — juhnt / 'ci: (r) d3ant / Argenta town, Italy

ar-jent-uh / o: (r) 'd3enta / Argentiere village, France

ar-zhah (ng) -tyair / u: (r) 3 € i'tje: (r) / Argentina country

ar-juhn-tee-nuh / _a: (r) d3en'ti: na /, Spanish [arxen'tina]

Q Established anglicization. Argentine relating to Argentina ar-juhn-tyn / 'o: (r) d3antArn /


Argentinian relating to Argentina ar-juhn-tin — i-uhn /, u: (r) d3an'tmian / Arges river, Romania

ar-jesh / 'i1: (r) d3e _ [/ Argo constellation ar-goh /' c1: (r) gao / argon chemical element ar-gon / 'o: (r) gnn / Argonauts Greek mythological characters

ar-guh-nawts / 'u: (r) gana: ts / A1'g0S city, Greece

ar — g0ss / 'n: (r) gos / argosy large merchant ship

ar-guh-si, "o: (r) gasi / argot jargon of a particular group

ar-goh / ‘o: (r) geu / Argyll and Bute council area, Scotland ar-gyl byoot / o: (r)‘ gA11'bju: t / Arhus (also Aarhus) city, Denmark

or-hooss / 'o: (r) hu: sl Ariadne Greek mythological character arr-i — ad-ni /, ari'adni / A1-ica city, Chile arr — ee-kuh la'ri: ka / Ariege river and department, France

arr-i-ezh / ari'e3 / Ariel moon of Uranus

air-i-uhl / 'e: rialf Aries constellation air-eez /' s: ri: z /

Arimidex trademark drug uh-rim-id-eks / a'r1mideks / arioso musical term

arr-i-oh-zoh / _ari'aozeo / Ariosto, Ludovico Italian poet

lood-uh-veek-oh arr-i-ost-oh / lu: da_vi: keu ari'ostau / Aristarchus Greek scholar

arr-ist-ar-kuhss /, ari'stu: (r) kes / Aristide, Jean-Bertrand Haitian statesman

zhah (ng) bair-trah (ng) arr-ist — eed / 341 be: (r), tr (1 aris'ti: d / Aristides Greek statesman and general

arr-is-y-deez /, £ ll‘I'SlAIdlZZ / 'Aristippus Grcck philosopher

arr — ist-ip-uhss /, ar1‘st | pasf Aristophanes Greek comic dramatist arr-ist-of-uh-neez I, ar1'stnfani: z / Aristotelian relating to Aristotle

arr-ist-uh-tee-Ii-uhn /, ar1sta'ti: lian /

Argentinian | Armstrong, Louis Aristotle Greek philosopher and scientist arr-ist-ot-uhl / ‘aristotal / arithmetic branch of mathematics

uh-rith-muh-tik / e'ri6mat1k / arithmetic relating to arithmetic

arr-ith-met-ik / _3I‘I6'm £ lll (/ Arkansas city and state, US

ark-uhn-saw / ’o: (r) kanso: / The river Arkansas in Kansas, however, is


Arkhangelsk see Archangel Arlanda airport, Sweden

ar-lan-duh / 'n: (r) landa / Aries city, France arl / o: (r) l / Arlon town, Belgium

ar-lo (n9) / 11: (r) ']: 3 / armadillo insectivorous mammal

ar-muh-dil-oh /, o: (r) me'd11au, l Armageddon last battle before the Day of Judgment

ar-muh-ged-uhn /, u: (r) ma'gsdan / 'Armagh county, Northern Ireland

ar-mah / o: (r) 'mu: /' Armagnac French brandy ar-muhn-yak / 'a: (r) manjak / Armani, Giorgio Italian fashion designer

jor-joh ar-mah-ni / 'd3o: (r) d3eo o: (r)' mo: ni / Armenia country ar-mee-ni-uh / o: (r) 'mi: nia, /' Established anglicization . Armenian, Raf fi Canadian composer and conductor

raf-i ar-mee-ni-uhn / 'rafi a: (r)' mi: nien / armistice agreement to stop lighting

ar-mist-iss / 'o: (r) mist1s,' Armitage, Richard American politician

ar-mit-ij / 'ci: (r) mit | d3 / armoire cupboard or wardrobe ar-mwar / o: (r)' mwu: (r) / Armstrong, Louis American jazz musician

loo-iss / 'lu: is / This was his preferred pronunciation, despite the popular pronunciation of his

name as loo-i.

Arne, Thomas | ASCII Arne, Thomas English composer arn / u: (r) n / Arnhem town, Netherlands

ar-nuhm / 'u: (r) nam / Arno river, Italy ar-noh /' u: (r) nao / arpeggio musical term

ar — pej — oh / u: (r) 'pad; -', ao / Arquette family name of American actors Patricia, Rosanna, and David ar-ket / u: (r) 'k: -: t / Arras town, France

arr-uhss / ‘ares /, [aras] - Established anglicization. Arrhenius, Svante Swedish chemist

svan-tuh arr-ay-ni-uuss / 'svanta a'reInios / arrhythmia irregular heartbeat

uh-rith-mi-uh / a‘r1omia / arrivederci ‘goodbye’ (Italian) arr-iv-ed-air-chi, / arIve'ds: (r) t_l'i / arriviste ambitious or selflseeking person

arr-i-veest /, ari'vi: st / arrondissement subdivision of a French department

arr-on ~ deess-mo (ng) /, arnn'di: smf) /, [ar fi dism fi j - Established anglicization.

Arroyo, Gloria. MaeapagalPhilippine president

glaw-ri-uh mak-uh-puh-gal arr-oy-oh / _glo: ria makapagal a'r:> 1au / arsenic chemical element

ar-suh-nik / 'ci: (r) san1k /

Artalld, Antonin French actor

ah (ng) -toh-na (ng) ar-toh / (1tau'né (1: (r) 'tau / Artaxerxes king of ancient Persia ar ~ tuh-zurk-seez /, u: (r) ta'za : (r) ksi: z / art deco decorative art style art dek-oh /, u: (r) t 'dskaol Artemis Greek goddess art-im-iss /' o: (r) t1m1s / Arte Povera Italian artistic movement ar -tay pov-uh-Ruh / _o: (r) tei 'pnvara / arthritis painful in fl ammation of the joints

arth-ry-tiss / u: (r) '9r / \ 1t1s / Arthropoda phylum of invertebrate


ar-thruh-poh-duh /, u: (r) 9ra'paoda /

26 articulatory relating to the formation of

speech sounds ar-tik-yuul-uh-tuh-ri / u: (r) 't1kjolatari;' Sometimes also ar-tik-yoo-lay-tuh-ri. arti fi ce clever devices or expedients

ar-tif-iss / 'u: (r) t1fis / artisan worker in a skilled trade

ar-ti Z-3 n /, u '(r) t1'. Z3 nf Sometimes also ar — tiz-an.

art nouveau style of decorative art and design

art noo — voh / _ci: (r) t nu: 'vau / Artois region and former province, France

ar-twah / c1: (r) 'twu: / Aruba island, Caribbean

uh-roo-buh / e'ru: ba / arugula rocket plant uh-roo-guh-luh / e'ru: gala, '

Arunachal Pradesh state, India arr-oo-nah-chuhl pruh-daysh / aru:, nu: t_l "a1 pra'de1_l" / Arundel town, England

arr-uhn-duhl / 'arende1 / Arwen character from The Lord Qf'th.e Rings ar-wen /' u: (r) wsn, ’Aryabhata. Indian astronomer

ar-yuh-bah-tuh /, u: (r) ja'bci: ta / Aryan ethnic group air — i-uhn / 'a: rian / arytenoid cartilage at the back of the larynx arr — it-ee — noyd f | & I'I'tiI1'lI) I (l / as ancient Roman coin

ass fasf asana yoga posture

ah — suh-nuh / 'c1: sana / Asansol city, India ass — uhn-sohl /, asan'sao1 / Asante see Ashanti

ASBO Anti-Social Behavior Order az-boh / "azbao / ascetic characterized by self-discipline

uh-set-ik fasstIk /

Ascham, Roger English scholar and writer ask-uhm / 'askam / ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange

ask-i / 'aski /


Asclepius I astigmatism

Asclepius Greek mythological character uh-Sklee-pi-uhS5 / a'skli: pias /

ASLEF Associated Society of Locomotive

AS001; town, England

az-lef / 'azlsf / Asmara capital of Eritrea

ask-uht / 'askat / ASEAN Association of South-East Asian

Engineers and Firemen

ass-mar-uh / as'ma: re /


Asoka lake Ashoka

ass-i-an / 'asian /

aspartame sweet substance

Asgard world in Scandinavian mythology

ass — gard / 'asgo: (r) d / Ashanti (also Asante) region, Ghana

uh-shan-ti / a'Ianti / Ashdod seaport, Israel

ash-dod / aj "dnd / Asher Hebrew patriarch

ash-uhr / 'aIa (r) / Ashgabat (also Ashkhabwd) capital of Turkmenistan

ash-khuh-bat / aj'xa'bat / Ashkenazi Jew of central or eastern European descent ash-kuh-nah-zi /, aj'ka'nu: zi / Ashkenazy, Vladimir Russian-born pianist vluh-dee-meer ash —Kuh-nah-zi / vla_di: mIa (r) _a_ [ka'n: ba (r) n, / Aubusson town, France; also carpet made there oh-byoo-son / Koobjusnn /, [obyso]

29 ~ Established anglicization. Auchterarder town, Scotland

okh-tuhr-ar-duhr /, nxta (r) 'o: (r) da (r) / Auckland city, New Zealand

awk-luhnd / 'o: kland, |' an courant aware of what is going on

oh koo-ro (ng) /, ao ku: 'r fi /, French [0 kur fi] Auden, W. H. English-born American poet aw-duhn /' o: dan / Audubon, John James American naturalist and artist

aw-duh-buhn, "a: daben / Auerbach, Frank German-born English painter

ow-uhr — bakh / 'aoa (r) bax / au fait having a good knowledge of

oh fay /, ao ‘fell Augean relating to Augeas aw-jee-uhn / o:‘ d3i: anf Augeas Greek mythological character

aw-jee-uhss /: i: 'd3i: es / augment change awg-ment / o: g'rnsnt / Augrabies Falls series of waterfalls, South Africa uh-grah-beez / a'gru: bi: z / Augsburg city , Germany owks-boork / 'aoksbua (r) k / augury sign of what will happen in the future aw-gyuu-ri /' o: gjori / august respected and impressive aw — gu5t, / a: 'gnst / Augusta resort, US aw-gust-uh /:>: 'gAsta / Augustine, St doctor ofthe Church

aw-gust — in /:>: 'g1 \ st1n / Augustus Roman emperor

aw-gust-uhss /o:'g.\stas/ auk seabird

Auchterarder | autarch Aurangzeb Mogul emperor aw-ruhng — zeb lozranzebl Aurelian Roman emperor aw ~ ree-li — uhn / o: 'ri: lian / Aurelius, Marcus Roman emperor

mar-kuhss aw-ree-Ii-uhss /, mu: (r) kas o: 'ri: lias, f ¢ See LATIN panel. aureole circle of light

aw — ri-ohl / o: riaol / Auric, Georges French composer

zhorzh orr-eek /, 3a: (r) 3 n'ri: k / auricular relating to the ear aw-rik-yuul-uhr / o: 'r1kjo1a (r) / Auriga constellation

aw-ry-guh /:.>:'rmga/ Aurora goddess of the dawn aw-raw-Ruh / o: 'r:>: ra /

Aurora Australis southern lights aw-raw-Ruh aw-strah-Iiss / a:, ro: ra o: 'stro: l1s / Aurora Borealis northern lights aw-raw-Ruh borr-i-ah-liss / a:, ro: ro bnri'u: l1s /

Auschwitz Nazi concentration camp in Poland owsh-vits / 'aoIv1ts / Auslese German white wine

owss-lay-zuh / 'aosle1za / auspicious conducive to success

aw-spish-uhss / o: 'sp1_l‘as / austere severe or strict ost-eer / n'stia (r), I.

Austerlitz, Battle ofbattle in 1805 aw-stuhr-lits / 'o: sta (r) 11ts / Austin city, US ost-in /' nstIn / Australasia region, South Paci fi c ost-Ruh-lay-shuh /, nstra'le1Ia, 'Australopithecus bipedal primate


auld lang syne times long past

/, nstralau'p191kas / Austria country

awld lang syn /, o: ld Ian 'smn /

east-ri-uh / 'nstria /

awk / aikl

aumbry recess or cupboard in a church

awm-bri / ': i: mbri / Aung San Burmese nationalist leader

owng san /, aun 'san / Aung San Suu Kyi Burmese political leader

owng san soo chee / aun, san su: ‘t_I‘i: /

The pronunciation awst-ri-uh is less common now. This is an established anglicization; the German name is

ijsterreich, pronounced oest-uhr-rykh

['o: staraic]. autarch ruler with absolute power

aw-tark / 'o: tci: (r) k /

authoritative | Avogadro, Amedeo authoritative able to be trusted as being accurate

aw-thorr-it-uh-tiv / o: '6nr1tat1v / Less commonly also aw-thorr-it-ay-tiv.

autism mental condition aw-tiz-uhm / 'o: t1zam / Autobahn German motorway

ow-toh-bahn / 'aotaobu: n,' Commonly also anglicizedi tojyv ¥ toEbgagh7n.7 autodidact self-taught person


aw-toh-did-act / 'o: taodidakt / automaton pl. automata mechanical device made in imitation of a human being

aw-tom-uh-tuhn, pl. aw-tom-uh-tuh / oftnmatan /, pl. / -ta, ’~ Standard -s plural is also possible. automotive relating to motor vehicles aw-tuh-moh-tiv / ,:>: ta'maot1v / autopista Spanish motorway Ow - '(Oh-peeSt-uh / _aotao'pi: sto / Commonly also anglicized to aw-toh-peest- uh.autopsy post-mortem examination

aw-top-si / 'o: tDpsi / Less commonly also aw-top-si.

autostrada Italian motorway ow-toh-strah-duh /, uotao'stro: da / Commonly also anglicized to

aw-toh-strah-duh. Auvergne region, France

oh-vairn / eo'vs: (r) n / Auxerre town, France oh — Sair / ao'sa: (r) / Sometimes erroneously awk-sair.

auxiliary providing additional help and support

awg-zil-i-uh-ri / o: g'z1liari / Commonly also awk-sil-i-uh-ri.

avalanche mass of snow falling rapidly down a mountainside

av-uh-lahnsh / 'avo1n: n_l ‘/ Avalon mythical place av-uh-Ion /' avalnn / avant-garde new and experimental


avast stop! uh-vahst / a'vu: st / Avastin cancer drug ay-vast-in / e1'vastm / avatar manifestation of a deity in bodily form av-uh-tar / 'avato: (r) / Avebury village, England

ayv-buh-ri, "e1vberi / Aveda American hair and skin care

company uh-vay-duh / a'verda / Avedon, Richard American photographer

av-uh-duhn / 'avadan / Avellino town and province, Italy

av-el-ee-noh; ‘ave'li: nao / Ave Maria Catholic prayer

ah-vay muh-ree-uh /, u: ve1 me'ri: o / Aventine Hill one of the seven hills of Rome av-uhn-tyn / '3V3l'liAl] 1 / aver state or assert uh-vur / a 'va: (r) / Avernus Roman mythological name uh-vur-nuhss / a'va: (r) nas / AVel'l'0i§S Spanish-born Islamic philosopher

uh-verr-oh-eez / a'vsraui: z / Aves class of vertebrates

ay-veez / 'eivi: z, / Avesta sacred texts of Zoroastrianism uh — vest-uh / a'vssta / avian relating to birds

ay-vi-uhn, "e1vian / aviatrix pl. aviatrices female pilot

ay-vi-ay-triks, pl. ay-vi-ay-triss-eez /, e1vi'e1tr1ks /, pl. / -tr1si: z / Avicenna Persian-born Islamic philosopher

av-iss-en-uh / _avI'ssne / Avignon city, France

av-een-yoh (ng) / avi: n'j5 /

avocet wading bird av-uh-set / 'avasst / Avogadro, Amedeo Italian chemist


and physicist

av-ong gard, l_avn1j | 'go: (r) d /, French [av fi gard]

am-uh-day-oh av-uh-gahd-raw / amaldelao ava‘go: drao /

avoirdupois | azure


avoirdupois system of weights

av-wa r — dyoo-pwah /, avwo: (r) dju: 'pwo: /

Avoriaz ski resort, France av-Orr-i-ah / avori'u: / avuncular kind towards a less experienced person

uh-vunk-yuul — uhr / a'vm] kjola (r) / AWACS Airborne Warning And Control System

ay — Wak5 / 'e1waks / Awarua southern tip of New Zealand ah-wuh-roo-uh / o: we'ru: a / AWOL Absent WithOut Leave

aylz-buh-ri / 'e1lzbari / Aymara South American ethnic group

y — muh-rah / AIl'I‘l9'I ‘(] I / Ayodhya town, India

ah — yohd-yuh / rju: 3 /, [b5 vwajo: 3] bonxie great Skua

bonk-si j‘bm3ksi / Bonynge, Richard Australian conductor

bon-ing / ‘bonny bonze Japanese or Chinese Buddhist teacher bonz / bonzil boojum mythological dangerous animal boo-juhm / 'bu: d3am,' Boolean relating to the work of mathematician George Boole

boo-li — uhn / 'bu: lian / boo! ‘rough and bad-mannered person bor / ba: (r) / Less commonly also boor.

Boiites | boscage


Boiites northern constellation

boh-oh-teez / beo'eoti: z, 'Booth, Cherie English lawyer; wife of Tony Blair

shuh-ree booth / ja, ri: 'bu: o / This British surname is variously

pronounced booth and booth, depending

on individual preference. Boothia, Gulf of Gulf in the Canadian

Arctic booth-i-uh / 'bu: 6ia / Bophuthatswana region, South Africa

boh-poo-tuht-swah-nuh /, beopu: tat'swu: ne / bora strong, cold wind baw-Ruh / 'bo: ra / Bora-Bora island, French Polynesia

baw-Ruh baw-Ruh /, bo: ra 'bo: ra / boracic consisting of boric acid

bu h-rass-ik / ba'rasik, 'borage herbaceous plant borr-ij /' bor1d5 / Boris city, Sweden

buu-rawss / bo'ro: s / Borazon trademark industrial abrasive

baw-Ruh-zon / 'b:>