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lead

Lead: characteristics

Atomic number:

82

Symbol:

Pb

Name (German):

lead

Name (English):

Lead (official name according to IUPAC)

Outdated:

Plumbum

Group:

Carbon group

IUPAC group:

14 (old nomenclature: Group IV A)

Period:

6

Dimensions (rounded):

207.2 u (rounded to the five significant digits)

Dimensions (exact):

207.2 u +/- 1 digit (s) [1]

Occurrence:

Naturally

Frequency:

2,00 · 10-3 % (percentage by mass of the earth's shell, i.e. the earth's crust / oceans up to 16 km depth)

CAS number [2]:

7439-92-1

Lead: atomic properties

Atomic radius (empirical):

180 pm

Atomic radius (calculated):

154 pm

Covalent radius:

147 pm

Van der Waals radius:

202 pm

Atomic volume:

18.30 cm3/ mol

Ionization energies:

kJ / moleV
1.715.6 kJ / mol7.417 eV
2.1450.5 kJ / mol15.033 eV
3.3081.5 kJ / mol31.938 eV
4.4083 kJ / mol42.317 eV
5.6640 kJ / mol68.819 eV

Oxidation numbers:

IV, II
(most important highlighted in bold)

Electronegativity (Pauling):

2,33

Electronegativity (Allred / Rochow):

1,6

Ionic radius:

84 pm

Grid energy:

2.04 eV / particle

Number nat. Isotopes:

4

Number of stable isotopes:

3

Number of unstable isotopes:

17

Stable isotopes:

isotopefrequency
204Pb1,4%
206Pb24,1%
207Pb22,1%
208Pb54,4%

Radioactive isotopes:

isotopeHalf-life
184Pb0.55s
202Pb3.62h
203Pb52.1h
205Pb15000000a (i.e. years, from lt. annus)
210Pb22.3a (i.e. years, from lt. annus)
211Pb36.1min
212Pb10.64h
213Pb10.2min

(The list contains only the 8 most important isotopes with known half-lives.)

Electron configuration:

[Xe] 4f145d106s26p2
OrbitalElectrons
1s2
2s2
2p6
3s2
3p6
3d10
4s2
4p6
4d10
4f14
5s2
5p6
5d10
5f0
6s2
6p2
6d0

Shell model:

  • 4 electrons in the outermost occupied shell
  • 18 electrons in the second to last occupied shell
  • 32 electrons in the occupied shell below

Lead: substance properties

Melting point:

600.8 K (~ 327.65 ° C)

Boiling point:

2022 K (~ 1748.85 ° C)

State of aggregation:

fixed (under normal conditions)

Crystal structure:

Cubic area-centered

Metal properties:

metal

Specific heat of fusion:

4.77 kJ / mol

Specific heat of vaporization:

177.9 kJ / mol

Thermal conductivity:

35.3 W / m / K

Specific heat capacity:

0.129 J / gK

Specific density:

11.342 g / cm3
(under normal conditions)

Expansion coefficient:

29,4 · 10-6/ K
(linear thermal expansion coefficient α)

Main lines in the spectrum:

405.8 nm
419.1 nm
424.6 nm
500.5 nm
504.6 nm
520.1 nm
537.3 nm
554.7 nm
560.8 nm
587.5 nm
600.2 nm
604.1 nm
645.3 nm
665.7 nm


 
Remarks:
  1. 1 digit = least significant digit, i.e. 2.435 +/- 3 digits means 2.432 ... 2.438
  2. The "CAS Registry Number" is that of the element lead from Chemical Abstracts Service Assigned key number that makes it easier to find specialist articles about this element in all publications and databases structured according to the CAS system.
    Legal notice: CAS registry number is a registered trademark of the American Chemical Society.