Howard Spodek The World History PDF files

Etymologie, Etimología, Etymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
IN India, India, Inde, India, India
Religion, religión, religion, religione, religion

A.

ahimsa (W3)

The Sanskrit word "ahimsa", adopted into English, is made up of "a-" = "not" and "himsa" = "harm" ("himsati" = "he hurts").

(E?) (L?) Http://wordcraft.infopop.cc/Archives/2007-06-Jun.htm
a Buddhist and Hindu doctrine expressing belief in the sacredness of all living creatures and urging the avoidance of harm and violence

(E?) (L?) Http://dictionary.reference.com/


(E1) (L1) http://www.visualthesaurus.com/landing/?w1=ahimsa


(E?) (L?) Http://www.wordsmith.org/awad/archives/1000


(E?) (L?) Http://www.wordsmith.org/awad/archives/0206


(E?) (L?) Http://www.zoope.com/
"Ahimsa" is also available as a name meaning "nonviolent virtue" = "nonviolent righteousness".

alphadictionary.com
Buddhism Dictionaries

(E?) (L?) Http://www.alphadictionary.com/directory/Specialty_Dictionaries/Religion/Buddhism/

  • • A Buddhist Compendium A detailed dictionary of various terms related to Buddhism, from the very basic to the more obscure.
  • • A Glossary of Buddhist Terms Glossary on a site about Chinese Buddhism.
  • • Buddhism A to Z Compiled by Ron Epstein, Ph.D.
  • • Buddhism Glossary On the website of a university Buddhist study and practice group.
  • • Buddhist Glossary Glossary of Buddhist terms.
  • • Buddhist Glossary Glossary of Buddhist terms.
  • • Dharma Dictionary: Tibetan-English-Dictionary of Buddhist Teaching & Practice An ongoing project involved in compiling Buddhist terminology and translation terms to bridge the Tibetan and English languages. Begun in 1979, it has slowly grown to a database of approx 5 megabytes with 65,000 entries.
  • • Dictionary of Buddhist Terms (downloads) Dictionary of CJK (Chinese-Japanese-Korean) East Asian Buddhist Terms, by Charles Muller.
  • • Dukkha An extensive discussion of "dukkha", a central term in Buddhism which is not directly translatable into English.
  • • Glossary of Buddhist Terms
  • • Glossary of Kadampa Buddhist Terms Definitions of many commonly used Tibetan Buddhist terms.
  • • Glossary of Shin Buddhist Terms Glossary of Shin Buddhist terms, from The Collected Works of Shinran.
  • • Glossary of Terms Adapted from the "talk.religion.buddhism" FAQ.
  • • Glossary of Zen Terms A glossary of Zen as used by the Kwan Um School of Zen.
  • • Interpretation of Buddhist Terminology Essay on how Buddhist terms were translated into Chinese.
  • • Sesshin Glossary Definitions of Terms used at Zen retreats.
  • • Zen Dictionary



Created: 2010-02

B.

bartleby043
Buddhist Writings

(E?) (L?) Https://www.bartleby.com/45/3/

Harvard Classics, Vol. 45, Part 3
Buddhist Writings
CONTENTS
Bibliographic Record
NEW YORK: P.F. COLLIER & SON COMPANY, 1909-14
NEW YORK: BARTLEBY.COM, 2001
Introductory Note
I. The Buddha
The Story of Sumedha | The Birth of the Buddha | The Attainment of Buddhaship | First Events After the Attainment | The Buddha's Daily Habits | The Death of the Buddha
II. The Doctrine
Questions Which Tend Not to Edification | There Is No Ego | The Middle Doctrine | Rebirth Is Not Transmigration | Death’s Messengers | The Devoted Wife | The Hare-mark in the Moon | The Way of Purity | Concentration | The Conversion of Animals | Love for Animals | Sariputta and the Two Demons | The Summum Bonum | The Trance of Cessation | The Attainment of Nirvana
III. The Order
The Admission and Ordination Ceremonies | The Mendicant Ideal | “And Hate Not His Father and Mother” | The Story of Visakha


bergerfoundation
Hindouisme

(E?) (L?) Http://www.bergerfoundation.ch/glossaire/glossary.html

FONDATION JACQUES-EDOUARD BERGER: À la rencontre des Trésors d'Art du Monde
Français
  • • Ancient Egypt
  • • Religions en Inde: Hindouisme
  • • Religions au Japon: termes généraux
  • • Religions au Japon: termes bouddhiques des Ecrits de Nichiren
English
  • • Egypt Ancient
  • • Religions in China: Confucianism and Taoism
  • • Religions in India: Pali & Buddhist terms



(E?) (L?) Http://www.bergerfoundation.ch/glossaire/inde/glossarya.html

Religions en Inde: Hindouisme

Abhaya mudrâ | Advaita | Agni | Ahamkara | Ahimsa | Akbar | Aksamâlâ | Amrita | Amâlâka | Amarâvatî | Ananta | Ankusha | Apsarâ | Ardha-mandapa | Ardhanarishvara | Ardhaparyankâsana | Artha | Ashoka | Ashram | Asura | Atman | Avalokiteshvara | Avatara


(E?) (L?) Http://www.bergerfoundation.ch/glossaire/inde/glossaryb.html
...

bergerfoundation
Pali & Buddhist terms

(E?) (L?) Http://www.bergerfoundation.ch/glossaire/glossary.html

FONDATION JACQUES-EDOUARD BERGER: À la rencontre des Trésors d'Art du Monde
Français
  • • Ancient Egypt
  • • Religions en Inde: Hindouisme
  • • Religions au Japon: termes généraux
  • • Religions au Japon: termes bouddhiques des Ecrits de Nichiren
English
  • • Egypt Ancient
  • • Religions in China: Confucianism and Taoism
  • • Religions in India: Pali & Buddhist terms



(E?) (L?) Http://www.bergerfoundation.ch/glossaire/inde/glossary.html

Religions in India: Pali & Buddhist terms

  • A | Abhidhamma | abhiñña | acariya | adhitthana | ajaan | akaliko | akusala | anagami | anapanasati | anatta | anicca | anupadisesa-nibbana | anupubbi-katha | anusaya | apaya-bhumi | arahant | arammana | ariya | ariyadhana | ariya-puggala | ariya-sacca | asava | asubha | Asura | avijja | ayatana
  • B toptop | bhante | bhava | bhavana | bhikkhu | bhikkhuni | bodhi-pakkhiya-dhamma | bodhisatta | brahma | brahma-vihara | brahman (brahmin) | buddho | Buddha
  • C toptop | cankama | cetasika | citta
  • D toptop | dana | deva (devata) | Devadatta | dhamma (Skt. dharma) | Dhamma-vinaya | dhana | dhatu | dhutanga | dosa | dukkha (m)
  • E toptop | effluents | ekaggatarammana | ekayana-magga | evam
  • F toptop | foundation of mindfulness | frame of reference
  • G toptop | gotarabhu-ñana
  • H toptop | Hinayana | hiri-ottappa
  • I toptop | idappaccayata
  • J toptop | jhana (Skt. dhyana)
  • K toptop | kalyanamitta | kamaguna | kamma (Skt. karma) | kammatthana Literally, "basis of work" or "place of work". The word refers to the "occupation" of a meditating monk | karuna | kathina | kaya | kayagata-sati | khandha | khanti | kilesa | kusala
  • L toptop | lakkhana | lobha | loka-dhamma | lokavidu | lokuttara
  • M toptop | magga | mahathera | majjhima | mara | metta | moha | mudita | mula
  • N toptop | naga | nama | nama-rupa | nekkhamma | nibbana (Skt. nirvana) | nimitta | nirodha | nivarana
  • O toptop | opanayiko
  • P toptop | pabbajja | paccattam | paccekabuddha | Pali | pañña | papañca | parami (also paramita) | parinibbana | parisa | pariyatti | paticca-samuppada | Patimokkha | patipada | patipatti | pativedha | Peta | phala | phra | piti | puja | puñña | puthujjana
  • Q top
  • R toptop | raga | run-of-the-mill person | rupa
  • S toptop | sabhava-dhamma | sacca | saddha | sadhu | sagga | sakadagami | sakkaya-ditthi | Sakyamuni | sakya-putta | sallekha-dhamma | samadhi | samana | samanera (samaneri) | sambhavesin | sammati | sampajañña | samsara | samvega | samyojana (sanyojana) | sanditthiko | sangha | sankhara | sañña | sanyojana | sasana | sati | satipatthana | sa-upadisesa-nibbana | savaka | sayadaw | sila | sima | sotapanna | stream-entry, stream-winner | stress | stupa (Pali | "such" | sugati | sugato | sukha | sutta (Skt. sutra)
  • T toptop | tadi | tanha | Tathagata | than | thera | Theravada | ti-lakkhana | tipitaka (Skt.tripitaka) | tiratana | tisarana
  • U toptop | ugghatitaññu | Unbinding | upadana | upasampada | upasika (upasaka) | upekkha | uposatha
  • V toptop | vassa | vatta | vedana | vicara | vijja | vijja-carana-sampanno | vimutti | Vinaya | viññana | vipaka | vipassana | vipassanupakkilesa | viriya | Visakha (i.e. Vesakha, Vesak, Wesak, etc.) | vitakka
  • W toptop
  • XYZ toptop | yakkha



* bheudh-
* bhu-n-dh-
* bhoundh-
area
Büttel (W3)

The root ide. "* bheudh-", "* bhu-n-dh-", "bhoundh-" means "being fully aware of something", "attentive", "being awake", "waking up", "observing", " aroused (to be) "," mentally active (to be) "," be attentive "," recognize "," pay attention "," announce "," command "," present ".

It can be found in altind. "bodhati", "bodhate" = "awaken", "notice", Avestan "baoδaiti" = "perceive", "understand", "recognize", Greek "πεύθομαι", Germ. "* biuðan", old Bulgarian. "bljudo & # 808";), ... participle "buddhá" = "awaken", and further descendants in many old and "new" Indo-European languages.

In addition to the ind. "Buddha" = Eng. "The awakened", "the enlightened" can be found in German as ahdt. "biotan" = German "offer", "offer", "offer" and accordingly as nhdt. "offer", "command", "forbid", "area", "Büttel" (in the sense of "offer (information)", "make known", "let know"). The "booty" was originally what was "negotiated", the "requested" and goes on mhdt. "biute", mniederd. "bute" = German "swap", "share" and "buten" = German "barter back".

Bodhisattva (W3)

The "Bodhisattva" ("enlightenment") = "one whose essence is perfect knowledge", which came to England in 1828, goes back to Sanskrit "bodhi" = "perfect knowledge" and "sattva" = "reality", "being".

(E?) (L1) http://agora.qc.ca/encyclopedie.nsf/Index/Themes_B
Le bouddhisme de Çâkya-mouni (dossier: Bouddha)
Par Charles Renouvier
Thèmes: Bouddhisme, légende de Bouddha (Çâkya-mouni), Bodhisattva, renoncement, salut, Inde

(E?) (L?) Http://agora.qc.ca/reftext.nsf/Documents/Bouddha--Le_bouddhisme_de_Cakya-mouni_par_Charles_Renouvier

Le bouddhisme de Çâkya-mouni dossier: Bouddha
Charles Renouvier
Philosophe français (1815-1903), author d'une magistrale Philosophie analytique de l'histoire: les idées, les religions, les systèmes.

Extrait
«Le bouddhisme est né dans l'Inde; il est postérieur au brahmanisme, ce qui ne veut pas dire à toutes les sectes nées dans la société brahmanique, et il a été banni de l'Inde centrale par les persécutions des brahmanes à une époque historiquement déterminée: le VIIIe siècle de notre ère, en ne tenant pas compte des restes qui ont pu s'y perpétuer jusqu'au XIIe. "
...


(E?) (L?) Http://www.arsmundi.de/
Search results: 'Bodhisattva': Found: 5

(E?) (L?) Http://www.asiasource.org/


(E?) (L?) Http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Bodhisattva


(E?) (L?) Http://religion.orf.at/projekt03/religionen/buddhismus/re_bu_fr_entstehung_haben.htm


(E?) (L?) Http://www.parasearch.de/mysteria/x/x1126.htm


(E?) (L?) Http://dictionary.reference.com/


(E?) (L?) Http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=Bodhisattva


(E?) (L?) Https://www.yourdictionary.com/bodhisattva


Bouddhisme (W3)

French "Bouddhisme" (1830), German "Buddhism" is named after "Buddha" the founder of this doctrine of salvation. The sanscratic "Bouddha" = German "the awakened", "the enlightened" was given to the Indian religious founder "Siddhartha Gautama", who lived in -624 - -544.

(E?) (L?) Http://agora.qc.ca/dossiers/Bouddhisme


(E?) (L?) Http://agora.qc.ca/recherche/bouddhisme

1-54


(E?) (L?) Http://agora.qc.ca/index/thematique/bouddhisme


(E?) (L?) Http://www.bouddhisme-zen.com/


(E?) (L?) Http://www.bouddhisme-zen.com/bouddha.html


Here you can find different time information:

(E?) (L?) Http://www.cnrtl.fr/etymologie/bouddhisme

... the. de Bouddha, surnom de Çâkya-Mouni (ca 640-580 av. J.-C.), fondateur du bouddhisme ...


(E?) (L?) Http://franco-thai.com/bouddhisme.php




(E?) (L?) Http://www.mumi.org/religion/fr/bouddhisme/index.html


(E?) (L?) Http://museedesreligions.qc.ca/les-grandes-religions

Le bouddhisme est apparu au VIe siècle avant notre ère. Son fondateur Siddhârtha Gautama, fils de roi, est né en Inde du Nord, à la frontière du Népal actuel.


(E?) (L?) Http://museedesreligions.qc.ca/adnbase/getfile.php?id=3

Le petit guide du bouddhisme


(E?) (L?) Http://www.oqlf.gouv.qc.ca/ressources/bdl.html


(E?) (L?) Http://66.46.185.79/bdl/gabarit_bdl.asp?Al=2&T1=Bouddhisme

  • Eponymes qui commencent par A et B [Eponymes]
  • Les consonnes doubles [problems liés aux consonnes]
  • Religions et titres religieux [Emploi de la majuscule pour des types de denominations]



(E?) (L?) Http://pagesperso-orange.fr/jb.guinot/pages/CadreIR.html

Bouddhisme "Fausse religion de l'Inde" (définition du dict. Bouillet 1ère édition)


(E?) (L?) Http://www.routard.com/mag_dossiers/id_dm/36/le_bouddhisme.htm

...
Depuis son apparition en Inde il y a 2 500 ans, le bouddhisme a vu du pays. Et influencé un bon tiers de l'humanité.
...


(E?) (L?) Http://www.universalis.fr/encyclopedie/bouddha-buddha/


(E?) (L?) Http://www.universcience.fr/cs/Satellite?c=QuestionReponse&cid=1195225356550&p=1195227432401&pagename=Portail%2FMED%2FPortailLayout&pid=1195218048360&t=Detail
Soins infirmiers et bouddhisme

(E1) (L1) http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/epc/langueXIX/dg/08_t1-2.htm
mots français d'origine non-latine: § 25. - Langues de l'Inde: "bouddhisme", "bouddhiste"

(E1) (L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=7&content=Bouddhisme
Query in the Google Corpus with 15Mio. scanned books from 1500 to today.

French "Bouddhisme" appears in literature around 1810.

Created: 2011-10

Buddha (W3)

The term "Buddha" means "enlightened one". Accordingly, "Buddhism" is the "teaching of the enlightened".

After Prince Siddharta Gautama (-566 - -486) ​​from Kapilawastu (today in Nepal) achieved a state of complete salvation under a fig tree, he taught as "Buddha" in India.

Siddharta Gautama Shakyamuni (approx. 563-486 BC, (Kusinara, today: Kasia)), later called "Buddha" = "the awakened", "the enlightened", was born around -560 in the northeast of the Indian subcontinent. He travels all over the country as a preacher of the "four noble truths". After his death around 480, his followers spread his message.

"Buddha" means something like "the awakened", "the enlightened" and is related to Sanskrit "bodhati" = "he awakens", "he becomes conscious" and "bodhih" = "perfect knowledge", Sanskrit "buddhah "=" awakened "," enlightened ".

"Buddha" came to England in 1681, as part. perf. from "budh" = "watch", "know", "recognize".
This title was bestowed on "Siddhartha Gautama" by his followers.
Another name "Sakyamuni" means "sage of the Sakyas" (the clan name of his family) who lived in northern India.

(E?) (L?) Http://www.amidabuddha.org/


(E?) (L?) Http://www.ancientindia.co.uk/


(E?) (L?) Http://www.ancientindia.co.uk/buddha/index.html


(E6) (L1) http://www.anthus.com/Colors/Colors_B.html


(E?) (L?) Http://www.anthus.com/Colors/Cent.html#12
"Buddha" as color: - # bf2233 - Strong Red


(E?) (L?) Http://www.anthus.com/Colors/Cent.html#15
"Buddha" as color: - # ab343a - Moderate Red


(E?) (L?) Http://www.arsmundi.de/
Search results: 'Buddha': Found: 88

(E?) (L?) Http://www.asiasociety.org/arts/japanmovie/object3.html


(E?) (L?) Http://www.asiasocietymuseum.com/treasure_object.asp?ObjectID=499


(E?) (L?) Http://www.asiasocietymuseum.com/himalayan/seatedBuddha.htm


(E?) (L?) Http://www.asiasource.org/reference/display.cfm?wordid=1613


(E?) (L?) Http://www.asiasource.org/reference/display.cfm?wordid=1712

Amitabha Buddha: The Buddha of infinite light or life, who presides over the pure land known as Sukhavati, or the Western Paradise.


(E1) (L1) https://www.bartleby.com/81/2613.html
Buddha quotes

(E2) (L1) http://www.beyars.com/kunstlexikon/lexikon_1468.html


(E?) (L?) Http://www.buddhanet.net/


(E?) (L?) Http://www.crystalinks.com/china.html


(E?) (L?) Http://www.crystalinks.com/buddha.html


(E?) (L?) Http://www.crystalinks.com/medmusicbuddha.html


(E?) (L?) Http://www.dieter-glogowski.de/multivisionsshow/nepal-wo-shiva-auf-buddha-trifft/
Nepal - where Shiva meets Buddha

(E?) (L?) Http://www.djfl.de/entertainment/djfl/1120/112458.html
The Giant Buddhas

(E?) (L?) Http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=Buddha


(E?) (L?) Http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Buddha


(E?) (L?) Http://www.geo.de/GEO/interaktiv/wissenstests/53688.html
GEO EPOCHE 26 - 05/07 - Knowledge test: Buddhism - Who was the founder of Buddhism? What is the meaning of the word "Buddha"? And which famous actor has professed Buddhism for years?

(E?) (L1) http://www.handlungsreisen.de/


(E?) (L?) Http://wohin.heute.de/tagestipp/tipp1574.html
14.10.2003
The House of Buddha

(E?) (L1) http://www.killingthebuddha.com/
Killing the Buddha is a religion magazine for people made anxious by churches ...

(E?) (L?) Http://www.museumofhoaxes.com/hoax/history/index


(E?) (L?) Http://www.museumofhoaxes.com/hoax/weblog/permalink/buddha_rays/


(E?) (L?) Http://www.museumofhoaxes.com/hoax/weblog/archive/2007/07/P15/
Is that the real Buddha’s tooth?

(E?) (L?) Http://www.museumofhoaxes.com/hoax/weblog/archive/2006/02/
Ancient Buddha Figurines Found in California River

(E?) (L?) Http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/buda/hd_buda.htm
Life of the Buddha
Information about the miraculous birth and life of Buddha (Siddhartha). The site features sculptures and paintings of Buddha from areas such as south Asia, Korea, and Japan. Part of the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Timeline of Art History.

(E?) (L1) http://religion.orf.at/projekt03/religionen/buddhismus/buddhismus.htm

Buddhism works without a personal god. The origin of Buddhism goes back to Prince Siddharta Gautama, who lived in the sixth century BC.


(E?) (L?) Http://members.ozemail.com.au/~mooncharts/shantideva/
Online edition of the Tibetan "Bodhicaryavatara", a description of the life of the Buddha from the 7th century (in English)

(E1) (L1) http://www.pantheon.org/articles/b/buddha.html


(E?) (L?) Http://www.philolex.de/buddhism.htm


(E?) (L?) Http://www.photogrammetry.ethz.ch/research/bamiyan/


(E?) (L?) Http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/tibet/buddha.html


(E?) (L?) Http://dictionary.reference.com/


(E?) (L?) Http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=Buddha


(E?) (L1) http://www.schwarzaufweiss.de/burma/myanmar1.htm
Through Buddha's golden land

(E1) (L1) http://www.symbols.com/index/wordindex-b.html
Buddha | Buddhist religion | buddhist signs | buddhist temple

(E1) (L1) http://www.symbols.com/encyclopedia/15/151.html

...
The "swastika" is mostly associated with Buddha in India, China, and Japan. In early Chinese symbolism was known as "wan", and was a general superlative. In Japan it may have been a sign for the magnificent number 10,000.
...


(E?) (L?) Http://www.symbols.com/encyclopedia/41b/41b4.html
Among the characters on a Buddha statue in Japan from 760 is the one that was abused in German history.

(E?) (L?) Http://www.the-house-of-buddha.de/start.htm


(E?) (L?) Http://www.unesco.de/c_arbeitsgebiete/welterbeliste.htm


(E?) (L?) Http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/


(E?) (L?) Http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/779
China: Mount Emei Scenic Area, including Leshan Giant Buddha Scenic Area (1996)

(E?) (L?) Http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/666
Nepal: Lumbini, the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha (1997)

(E?) (L1) http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Buddha


(E6) (L1) http://www.weltchronik.de/bio/cethegus/b/buddha.html
Buddha, Siddharta Gautama

(E?) (L1) http://www.who2.com/buddha.html
Buddha | Gautama, Siddhartha

(E?) (L?) Http://www.whoswho.de/templ/te_bio.php?PID=1319&RID=1
S. Buddha (0560 BC)

(E?) (L?) Https://www.yourdictionary.com/buddha


(E1) (L1) http://ngrams.googlelabs.com/graph?corpus=8&content=Buddha
Query in the Google Corpus with 15Mio. scanned books from 1500 to today.

German "Buddha" appears in literature around 1800.

(E?) (L?) Http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


Created: 2013-04

buddha nature, buddha-nature (W3)

The Engl. "buddha nature" or "buddha nature" denotes the pure nature and emptiness of every living being. Perfection leads to enlightenment.

When and under what circumstances this term first appeared I could not clarify.

(E?) (L?) Http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Buddha%20nature


Buddha Punch (W3)

Unfortunately, it is not described which circumstance the "Buddha Punch" owes its name to.

(E?) (L?) Http://www.cocktaildreams.de/cooldrinks/cocktailrezept.buddha-punch.205.html


Buddha Rays (W3)

Nobody has seen the "Buddha rays" before. - The only surprising thing is that people believe in it.

(E?) (L?) Http://www.museumofhoaxes.com/hoax/weblog/permalink/buddha_rays/

Status: Optical illusion In Sri Lanka millions of people have been flocking to temples, and causing massive traffic jams, after the local media reported that images of the Buddha were emitting "miracle rays".
...


Created: 2006-08

Buddha bracelet, Buddhist bracelet (W3)

What a rosary is to one person is his "Buddha bracelet" to another.

(E2) (L1) http://www.beyars.com/lexikon/lexikon_2495.html


(E?) (L?) Http://www.beyars.com/lexikon/lexikon_2492.html

...
The Buddhist bracelet is a prayer bracelet, similar to the rosary, the Indian mala or the Islamic prayer chains.
...


buddha-body (W3)

As in other monotheistic teachings, Buddhism does not seem to be able to do without the Trinity.

However, when the "buddha-body" appeared for the first time, I could not find out.

(E?) (L?) Http://www.asiasource.org/reference/display.cfm?wordid=1614

A buddha is no longer an ordinary being, a self-habit-ridden individual caught inside his skin: his extraordinary qualities are expressed as three bodies of the experience of enlightenment.
...


Buddhahood (W3)

I have not been able to find out when "Buddhahood" first appeared.

A state of spiritual enlightenment in accordance with Buddhist teachings.

(E?) (L?) Http://dictionary.reference.com/


Buddha Nature (W3)

On May 26th, 2008 Dirk Schröder asked:


... When searching for the word "Buddha-nature" we found that this word does not appear in the Pali Kannon. But there must be an etymology for "Buddha nature" with the various entries in the various lexicons and their explanations, one cannot recognize any etymological derivations, only bumpy attempts at explanation. Perhaps you would have the kindness to find out something. I can imagine that one could find something in the teachings of the Sarvastavadins or the Mahasnghikas.


Unfortunately I am not a connoisseur of Buddhist teachings. Therefore I can only offer what I found in my search for "Buddha nature".

However, whoever "Buddha nature" or Engl. "Buddha Nature" used "Buddha Nature" for the first time and which Indian roots this term goes back to, unfortunately I could not find out.

(E?) (L?) Http://www.buddhaland.de/viewtopic.php?f=1&t=876

...
Re: Buddha nature
by Ariya on May 10th, 2008, 9:08 am
  • Some call it "the mind reality"
  • Some call it "Self" (Atman)
  • Some call it "selflessness" (Anatman)
  • Some call it "ghost"
  • Some call it "transcendent wisdom" (Prajnaparamita)
  • Some call it "Buddha-nature" (Tathagatagarbha)
  • Some call it "the great seal" (mahamudra)
  • Some call it "the soul drop"
  • Some call it "Room of Truth" (Dharmadhatu)
  • Some call it "the foundation" (Alaya)
  • Some call it "the ordinary"
(after Padmasambhava)
...


(E?) (L?) Http://www.digitale-bibliothek.de/band48.htm

While the older Buddhism already assumed that every being can potentially achieve an enlightenment of the same quality as that of the Buddha, the Mahayana (Sanskrit for "great vehicle (of salvation)") develops this idea to the conception of the general "Buddha nature", ie a hidden participation of all beings (later in some schools even: of all things) in the being of Buddha. The "Buddha nature", also called "Buddhata", "Buddhasvabhava" or "Tathagatagarbha" ("womb of the Tathagatas") is identified with the "dharmakaya" within the Trikaya doctrine. The doctrine of the "Buddha-nature" expresses not only the comprehensive optimism of salvation of Buddhism, but also a philosophical connection between immanence and transcendence.

[Lexicon of Buddhism: Buddha Nature. Lexicon of Buddhism, p. 236]



"Buddhata" (Sanskrit), "Buddhahood"; Another name for the "dharmakaya" ("trikaya", "Buddha", "Buddhology") i.S. the general "Buddha-nature" (also called "Buddhasvabhava").

[Lexicon of Buddhism: Buddhata. Lexicon of Buddhism, p. 240]


Buddhaverse (W3)

"Buddhaverse" is, so to speak, the Buddhist universe.

(E?) (L?) Http://www.asiasource.org/reference/display.cfm?wordid=1615

...
In addition, they envisioned "buddhaverses", universe transformed by individual buddhas into environments perfectly suited to the spiritual evolution of all the beings in them. The "buddhaverses" include the heavens of the ordinary deities in the highest of the Brahma heavens, the Akanishta. Universe indicates a world turning around the single, self-centered individual, whereas the "buddhaverse" turns around enlightened wisdom which sees no ultimate distinction between self and other.


Buddhism (W3)

The terms "Buddhist" and "Buddhism" derived from "Buddha" appeared in England in 1801.

(E?) (L?) Http://www.alphadictionary.com/cgi-bin/turboseek/tseek.cgi?id=309&ct=Specialty_Dictionaries-Religion&ln=
Buddhism A to Z

(E?) (L?) Http://www.asiasocietymuseum.com/buddhist_trade/
Buddhist Art and the Trade Routes
"Trade routes, both maritime and overland, were the primary means by which Buddhist thought and imagery were conveyed from India, the birthplace of Buddhism, to other Asian countries." This online exhibit provides an overview of the trade routes and the Buddhist religion, and images of Buddhist art from Korea, Japan, China, Mongolia, the Himalayas, Southeast Asia, and Sri Lanka. Also includes a bibliography.

(E?) (L?) Http://www.asiasocietymuseum.com/buddhist_trade/glossary.html


(E?) (L?) Http://www.asiasource.org/reference/
Apocalyptic Buddhism | Esoteric Buddhism | Pure Land Buddhism

(E?) (L?) Http://www.asiasource.org/reference/display.cfm?wordid=1616

Buddhism
The religion, education system, or way of life founded on the enlightenment attained 'and proclaimed possible and necessary for others to attain' by Shakyamuni Buddha beginning around 530 B.C.E. The Three Jewels - 'the Buddha (teacher), the Dharma (teaching) and the reality of freedom it presents, and the Sangha (community of practitioners)' are the three most precious things for a Buddhist. He takes refuge in them to find a haven from the extreme dangers of the suffering life cycle, and assurance of the positive evolutionary direction of his life. Among the many types of Buddhism are three overarching categories, all developed in India from approx. 500 BCE to 1100 CE, and known as the Three Vehicles by those who accept them. The first, Monastic Buddhism (early, original, or primitive Buddhism), is centered on the Four Noble Truths and aims for the individual's freedom and enlightenment. We call it the Individual Vehicle, without negative connotation. The second, Messianic or Mahayana Buddhism of the post-Ashokan period, is centered on emptiness and great compassion and all beings' freedom and enlightenment. We call it the Universal Vehicle. The third, variously known as the Diamond Vehicle or Mantrayana, Tantrayana, or Vajrayana Buddhism, is the esoteric vehicle of post-Gupta Tantric Buddhism, centered on the implementation of compassion as great bliss, the use of artistic imagination to reconstruct the self and the universe, and all beings' accelerated freedom and enlightenment. We call it the Apocalyptic Vehicle from the lightning-swift and revelatory connotation of vajra as diamond and thunderbolt. There are also national forms such as Indian, Sri Lankan, Burmese, Japanese, Tibetan, or Chinese Buddhism. Finally, there are separate orders or sects within various cultures, such as Zen Buddhism, Theravada Buddhism, Shingon Buddhism, or Pure Land Buddhism.


(E?) (L?) Http://www.asiasource.org/news/at_mp_02.cfm?newsid=54751
Asia Today: Buddhism in the U.S. (2001)
Access a collection of articles, links to temples and Buddhist associations, online Buddhist publications, and general links with this special report.

(E1) (L1) https://www.bartleby.com/81/B3.html


(E?) (L?) Http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/buddhism/index.shtml
BBC Religion and Ethics: Buddhism
Buddhism basics from the BBC: Introduction, Customs, Worship, History, Beliefs, Holy Days, and Subdivisions. Go into Subdivisions for essays on Buddhist branches: Theravada, Mahayana, Pure Land, Tibetan, Zen, Korean Zen (Son). Special features: Four Noble Truths, Buddhism in Britain, and Sacred Mandala Sand Painting.

(E?) (L?) Http://www.beliefnet.com/story/7/story_732_1.html
American Buddhism's Racial Divide
"Buddhists in the United States are split into two camps: Asian Americans and 'New Buddhists.' Can they be brought together? "

(E?) (L?) Http://www.besthistorysites.net/AncientBiblical_HinduismBuddhism.shtml


(E?) (L?) Http://www.buddhanet.net/
Questions and answers, historical background, pictures, "Buddhist Studies", "eBook Library", "Buddhanet Audio", "Archived File Library", "World Buddhist Directory", "BuddhaZine", "Meditation", "audio files of chanting" , "a photo documentary of Buddhism", "teacher's guides", "games".

(E?) (L?) Http://www.buddhanetz.net/dharma.htm
Information on Buddha and Buddhism

(E?) (L?) Http://www.boloji.com/buddhism/00110.htm
Concise explanation of Eightfold Path

(E?) (L?) Http://www.buddhanet.net/bsq14.htm
Ethnic Buddhism and Other Obstacles to the Dhamma in the West
In this commentary, V.A. Gunasekara outlines Buddhism basics, and the history of Buddhism in the West and argues that misconceptions about Buddhism are in danger of "transforming the universal message of Buddhism into a parochial cult."

(E?) (L?) Http://www.cloudwater.org/pureland.html
Pure Land Buddhism

(E?) (L?) Http://www.crystalinks.com/buddhism.html


(E?) (L?) Http://www.crystalinks.com/china.html


(E?) (L1) http://www.crystalinks.com/india.html


(E?) (L?) Http://www.crystalinks.com/indiareligion.html


(E?) (L?) Http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Buddha


(E?) (L1) http://www.formosa-translation.com/chinese/index.shtml


(E?) (L?) Http://www.gutenberg.net/dirs/1/2/5/1/12513/12513-h/12513-h.htm
In the "Dewey Decimal Classification", "Brahmanism and Buddhism" has the number "294".

(E?) (L1) http://www.krysstal.com/english.html
Religions of the World describes the world's major religions and includes Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism and others with tables and evolution.

(E?) (L1) http://www.meta-religion.com/


(E?) (L?) Http://www.metmuseum.org/explore/Chinese/html_pages/glossary.htm


(E?) (L?) Http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/b.htm


(E?) (L?) Http://www.palikanon.com/
Basic texts of Buddhism with dictionary

(E?) (L1) http://www.refdesk.com/philos.html
  • Buddhism in the United States - Report on Buddhism in the United States featuring a number of articles and commentaries, links to temples and Buddhist associations, online magazines, and other resources.
  • Buddhism for the Lay Practitioner - "A collection of resources for those who are interested in exploring Buddhism, from an admittedly Theravada viewpoint."
  • Tricycle Hub, The - the online version of 'Tricycle: The Buddhist Review;' provides an excellent overview of Buddhism in language Westerns can understand
  • Zen Guide - site covers the history, concepts, and ideas of Buddhism and Zen and other Eastern philosophies. Each section contains a brief article and annotated links for further study.


(E?) (L?) Http://campus.northpark.edu/history/WebChron/Buddhism.html
Buddhism chronology with links to sites on Indian and Chinese history

(E?) (L?) Http://www.pbs.org/edens/bhutan/Bhu_teach_1.htm

Bhutan, the Last Shangri-La: Buddhism and Ecology
In this PBS lesson plan students will use the Internet, watch video clips, write a paragraph, make a chart (and more) to find out which countries observe Buddhism as their main religion, learn about Buddhist attitudes toward ecology, and write and perform or tell an allegory similar in scope to the story of the Four Harmonious Friends.


(E?) (L?) Http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/tibet/

Dreams of Tibet
Sections: understanding "tibetan buddhism", ascending the roof of the world, interviews, china in tibet, chronology, links. There is a great selection of reports and readings as well as historical chronology. The interviews feature a mix of political and Hollywood figures.


(E?) (L?) Http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/spodek2/chapter9/deluxe.html

The World's History: Hinduism and Buddhism
The online guide to Howard Spodek's The World's History features quizzes (multiple-choice questions, true / false questions, interactive review questions), primary sources, maps, a bulletin board, a Live Chat, web links, and faculty resources for each chapter / topic. Professor Spodek identifies the categories historians can deal with: the sanctification of time, of space, of language and literature, of artistic and cultural activity, as well as the creation of religious organizations.


(E?) (L?) Http://dictionary.reference.com/
Tibetan Buddhism

(E?) (L1) http://www.religionexplorer.com/


(E?) (L?) Http://www.sunderland.ac.uk/~os0dwe/bsa.shtml
UK Association for Buddhist Studies

(E?) (L?) Http://web.ukonline.co.uk/buddhism/index.htm
Nibbana.com - Theravada Buddhism

(E?) (L?) Http://depts.washington.edu/ebmp/

Early Buddhist Manuscripts Project in "The British Library / University of Washington"

"was founded in September 1996 in order to promote the study, editing, and publication of a unique collection of fifty-seven fragments of Buddhist manuscripts on birch bark scrolls, written in the Kharosthi script and the Gandhari (Prakrit) language that were acquired by the British Library in 1994. The manuscripts date from, most likely, the first century AD, and as such are the oldest surviving Buddhist texts, which promise to provide unprecedented insights into the early history of Buddhism in north India and in central and east Asia . "


(E?) (L?) Http://www.wikia.com/wiki/List_of_Wikia


(E?) (L?) Http://www.world-view.org/
Tibetan Buddhism

(E?) (L?) Http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/BUDDHISM/BUDDHISM.HTM
Buddhism (Washington State University)
Part of a university course on World Civilizations; provides excellent background material
World Cultures to 1500: Buddhism
A terrific overview of Ancient and Medieval History can be found at this online course, based at Washington State University. It offers clear and informative lecture notes, maps, a photo gallery, timelines, links to relevant sites, and more. Click Contents.
Go to Contents for clear, contextual information on Indian history and religion as well as a glossary of Indian terms and historical maps. Under Resources you'll find a link to Hymns of the Rig Veda (includes a Creation Hymn).

(E?) (L?) Https://www.yourdictionary.com/buddhism

a religion and philosophic system of central and eastern Asia, founded in India in the 6th cent. by Buddha: it teaches that right thinking and self-denial will enable the soul to reach Nirvana, a divine state of release from misdirected desire


Buddhism, Siddhartha (W3)

"Buddhism" goes back to the teachings of "Buddha".

  • Dumoulin, Heinrich (1905-1995), Jesuit, since 1940 Professor of Philosophy and Religious Studies at the Univ. Tokyo, Dr. theol. h.c. the Univ. Würzburg, Buddhism expert
  • Nakamura, Hajime (1912-1999), Prof. at the Univ. Tokyo, 1963/64 visiting professor at Harvard, Buddhism researcher, interlocutor in the Christian-Buddhist dialogue
  • Poussin, Louis De La Vallée (1869-1938) Belgian Buddhism researcher


(E?) (L?) Http://idp.bbaw.de/
BUDDHISM ON THE SILK ROAD

(E?) (L?) Http://www.brettnacher.org/users/dominik/index.php3?topic=buddhismus-2&subtopic=buddhismus
Way of Siddharta Gautamas

(E?) (L?) Http://buddhism.about.com/library/blbud101.htm


(E?) (L?) Http://www.buddhismus.at/


(E?) (L?) Http://www.buddhismus.de/
A German Buddhism site on meditation and rebirth.
Information on Buddhism and Buddhist centers in Germany

(E?) (L?) Http://www.buddhism.edu/EinfuhrungBuddhismusMainFrame.htm
Introduction to Buddhism

(E?) (L?) Http://www.buddhismus-austria.at/
Austrian Buddhist Religious Society

(E?) (L?) Http://www.buddhismus-deutschland.de/
German Buddhist Union

(E?) (L?) Http://beat.doebe.li/bibliothek/


(E3) (L1) http://www.hanisauland.de/info/allebegriffe.html

Buddhism is one of the great world religions

"Buddha" the "enlightened one" with the name Siddharta Gautama founded around the year 530 B.C.E. a new religion and became its first saint by declaring himself the chief teacher and the only fully enlightened one.

...
"Siddharta Gautama" (he lived from about 560 to 480 BC) was the son of an Indian prince. After surviving a serious illness, he gave up his previous luxury life. He left his family and withdrew into solitude. There he thought a lot about life and death. According to legend, enlightenment should have come to him under a fig tree. That is why he was also called "Buddha" (that is, "The Enlightened One"). From then on he moved through the country and proclaimed his teaching, "Buddhism".
...
Like Christianity, Islam, Judaism and Hinduism, Buddhism is one of the world's great religions.
...


(E1) (L1) http://www.hls-dhs-dss.ch/


(E?) (L?) Http://www.hutabzumgebet.de/
Information on the subjects: Religion, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism.

(E?) (L?) Http://www.ids-mannheim.de/kt/30000wordforms.dat
"Buddhism" is one of the 30,000 most common words.

(E?) (L?) Http://www.kath.ch/do_buddhismus.htm
Link collection on Buddhism (Swiss Catholic Church)

(E?) (L?) Http://www.kkoe.at/
Diamond Way - Buddhism in Austria

(E?) (L?) Http://www.lengerke.de/term/
Explanations of Buddhist terminology

(E?) (L?) Http://meditationfrance.com/
With a lot of information about meditation, Buddhism, Tai-chi, Yoga, Tantrism

(E?) (L1) http://religion.orf.at/projekt02/religionen/religionen.htm
Buddhism has its historical origin in the sixth century BC. And is inextricably linked with the personality of Siddharta Gautama.
  • Encounter with Buddhism in the West
  • Buddhism in rational Europe
  • Problem areas in the Christian - Buddhist dialogue
  • "Everything is empty" - central terms of the Buddhist worldview
  • The doctrine of rebirth in Buddhism


(E?) (L?) Http://www.palikanon.com/
Tipitaka, the "Pali Canon" of Theraváda Buddhism in German - with a Buddhist dictionary.

(E?) (L?) Http://www.parasearch.de/mysteria/x/


(E?) (L?) Http://www.philolex.de/philolex.htm


(E?) (L?) Http://www.pinselpark.org/religion/buddhismus/00verzeichnisn.html
Life and teaching of the Buddha, history, worldview, ethics, criticism, sources, links

(E?) (L?) Http://www.salzburg.co.at/chalupny.paul.dr.med/buddhismus.htm
The five ethical principles of the Buddha

(E?) (L1) http://www.schaetze-der-welt.de/
  • Luang Prabang Royal Palace and Buddhist Monasteries
    Deep in the mountains of Laos, on the banks of the Mekong, immersed in the green of the jungle, lies Luang Prabang. Luang Prabang was the capital of Lane Xang, the mighty empire of the 'one million elephants', and for centuries the seat of the kings of Laos. To this day, Luang is ...
  • Sanchi: Buddhist shrine near Sanchi
    The oldest Buddhist stupas in India stand on a hill near the small town of Sanchi in central India. They are over 2000 years old. In Buddhism, stupas symbolize the sacred tree of life and enlightenment.
    After the Buddha's death it was ...
  • Sokkuram Cave and Temple of Pulguksa
    At the time of the Korean Silla Kingdom, the Buddhist Sokkuram was completed on Mount Toham in 774, an artificial cave temple made of granite blocks, which the builder had covered with a mound of earth. ...


(E3) (L1) http://www.textlog.de/eisler_woerterbuch.html


(E?) (L?) Http://www.tibet.com/


(E?) (L?) Http://www.uni-protocol.de/Lexikon/Hinduismus.html
Hinduism - Buddhism

(E?) (L?) Http://www.ursache.at/
Cause and Effect - the Buddhist online magazine

(E?) (L?) Http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fachgebiet
Buddhist studies

Incidentally, Hermann Hesse chose "Siddharta", the first name of Buddha, for the fictional life story of the Buddha.

Siddhartha
by Hermann Hesse
Language: German
Paperback - 120 pages - Suhrkamp
Release DATE: April 2002
Edition: 56th, ed.
ISBN: 3518366823

Buddhist (W3)

The terms "Buddhist" and "Buddhism" derived from "Buddha" appeared in Englenad in 1801.

(E?) (L1) http://www.archive.org/details/tse_chen_ling
Tse Chen Ling Buddhist Lectures



(E1) (L1) https://www.bartleby.com/81/2615.html

Buddhist: One whose system of religion is Buddhism.


(E?) (L?) Http://www.dalailama.com/
His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet
"Dedicated to creating awareness of the life and work of His Holiness Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet," this Web site describes the Dalai Lama's early life, escape to India, and formation of his government-in-exile in India. Includes a summary of Tibet's history, images of the Dalai Lama, and text of his Nobel Peace Prize speech and other teachings. From the Office of Tibet and Tibetan Government-in-Exile.

(E?) (L?) Http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Buddha


(E?) (L?) Http://www.metmuseum.org/explore/symbols/html/el_symbols_fm.htm
Look for Symbol in Sculpture: Fudô Myô-ô in this MET Museum activity you roll your cursor over the image to identify a symbol and to discover what it means. Fudô Myô-ô, a Buddhist deity from Japan, guards the Buddhist faith and helps believers who pray for assistance.

(E?) (L?) Http://www.newalbion.com/artists/cagej/
Autobiography of modern American composer John Cage (1912-1992), covering his early life, his collaboration with dancers and choreographers (most notably Merce Cunningham), the influence of Zen Buddhism on his work, and some of his other interests (printmaking and mycology ). Site also includes links to other websites about Cage. Provided by one of the record labels that published Cage's music.

(E?) (L?) Http://kaladarshan.arts.ohio-state.edu/maps/gansu.html
China - Gansu Province Buddhist Sites (Ohio State University, Huntington Archive)

(E?) (L?) Http://www.pbs.org/wnet/religionandethics/week703/feature.html
Feature: Thich Nhat Hanh
2003 interview with Vietnamese Buddhist monk Thich Nhat Hanh, whose teachings focus on peace and nonviolence. Includes photos, video clips, a bibliography, and related links. From the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) program "Religion and Ethics Newsweekly."

(E?) (L?) Http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/tibet/buddha.html
Deciphering Buddha Imagery
Before you can honor a Buddha you have to recognize him — and there are many depictions in Buddhist art that resemble "The Enlightened One." This site uses Flash animation to help you understand the meanings of the five most common hand gestures, or mudras, used in Buddhist art. Engaging way to present Buddha icons.

(E?) (L?) Http://www.support4learning.org.uk/shap/index_t.htm

... Notes on Buddhist dates
...
There are different Buddhist traditions practiced in the West and around the world including:
  • "Theravada Buddhism", the school of Buddhism found in Burma, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and in part, Indonesia, Vietnam and Malaysia.
  • "Mahayana Buddhism", the school of Buddhism found in China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam.
  • "Vajrayana Buddhism", the school of Buddhism found in Tibet, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and Mongolia.
  • "Jodo Shin Buddhism" or "Pure Land Buddhism" mainly from India, Japan
  • "Zen Buddhism"



(E?) (L?) Http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/tibetanpaintings/
Tibetan Legacy: Paintings from the Hahn Kwang-ho Collection
This exhibition of Tibetan banner paintings from the British Museum draws on the Buddhist tradition in Tibet from the 8th century onwards. Paintings of this type were used in the practice of meditation and subject matter ranges from goddesses to guardian figures.

(E?) (L?) Http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/UR/Ur_home.html
Huntington Photographic Archive of Buddhist and Related Art
The John C. and Susan L. Huntington Photographic Archive of Buddhist and Related Art of the College of the Arts, Ohio State University contains nearly 300,000 original color slides and black and white and color photographs of art and architecture throughout Asia. Countries covered in the collection include India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, China, Japan, Thailand, Indonesia, and Myanmar (Burma). Works range from approximately 2500 B.C.E. to the present, and documentation includes contemporary religious activities in various parts of Asia. The Archive documents the art and architecture of these countries in situ, as well as works of art found in most major Asian, European, and American museums. This broad, yet detailed collection contains predominantly Buddhist material, but also includes Hindu, Jain, Islamic, and other works.

(E?) (L?) Http://whc.unesco.org/
  • Bangladesh: Ruins of the Buddhist Vihara at Paharpur (1985)
  • India: Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi (1989)
  • Japan: Buddhist Monuments in the Horyu-ji Area (1993)
  • Pakistan: Buddhist Ruins of Takht-i-Bahi and Neighboring City Remains at Sahr-i-Bahlol (1980)


Buddhist art

Buddhist art and Buddhism - A religious belief based on the teachings of an Indian prince, "Siddhartha (or Shakyamuni) Gautama" (born in Nepal, c. 563 - c. 483 BCE), commonly known as the "Buddha", who held that suffering is a part of life but that mental and moral self-purification can bring about a state of illumination, carrying the believer beyond suffering and material existence. The central goal of Buddhism is the abandonment of desire and the realization of non-attachment.

Making generalizations about the visual culture of any group of people is a crude endeavor, especially with a culture as diverse as Buddhism's. With this thought in mind, know that this survey, as any must be, is tremendously limited in its breadth and depth.

(E?) (L?) Http://www.unesco.de/c_arbeitsgebiete/welterbeliste.htm
  • Bangladesh: Ruins of the Buddhist monastery of Paharpur (K / 1985)
  • China: Shan Emei Mountain Landscape and "Big Buddha of Leshan" (K / N / 1996)
  • India: Buddhist shrine near Sanchi (K / 1989)
  • Japan: Buddhist Shrines of Horyu-ji (K / 1993)
  • Laos: Luang Prabang with the royal palace and Buddhist monasteries (K / 1995)
  • Nepal: Lumbini (birthplace of Buddha) (K / 1997)
  • Pakistan: Buddhist ruins of Takht-i-Bahi (K / 1980)


Buddhist Clothing Fragrance - Rose

(E?) (L?) Http://www.helpmefind.com/rose/pl.php?n=11780


C.

D.

Dharma
dharmic
* therefore-
Throne (W3)

The Sanskrit "Dharma" means "law", "doctrine", "support", "way". In particular, the "eternal teaching of the Buddha" is referred to as "Dharma". But also fundamental components of the spiritual world such as "space", "nirvana" can be called "Dharma" - comparable to the scientific term "natural law".

In English, the adjective "dharmic" was derived from this.

About the root ide. "* dher-" = German "hold tight", "endure", "support" is Sanskrit "dharma" is related to Latin "firmus" = German "firm", "strong", "strong" and Latin. "fortis" = German "strong", "strong", "sprightly". This in turn resulted in German "solid" and English. "firm" = German "firm", "steadfast", "firmament" (the "firm" vault of heaven above the earth), engl. "affirm" = dt. "insure", "assert", engl. "fort" = German "fort", "fortress" and many other words.

In Greek one finds Greek "thronos" = German "seat", "throne" from which of course German "throne" and English. "throne" was created. (Although "fixed", a "throne can wobble" too.)

Also related is the Hindu word "dharna", the name for a kind of coercive fasting in which the believer starves at the debtor's door to collect his money.

(E?) (L?) Http://www.buddhanetz.net/dharma.htm
Information on Buddha and Buddhism

(E?) (L?) Http://www.dharma.de/
Information from the Buddhist Union Germany

(E?) (L?) Http://www.shindharmanet.com/
Shin Dharma Net

Information about Shin Buddhist tradition and Pure Land Buddhism as it is presently practiced and interpreted by Shin communities in the West and Japan.

With an introduction to Shin Buddhism, the online course "Shin Buddhism in Modern Culture", documents, and related resources. Portions of the site are also available in Japanese and Spanish. From a University of Hawaii religion professor and author of a book on Shin Buddhism.

E.

EBMP (W3)

"EBMP" stands for "Early Buddhist Manuscripts Project".

(E?) (L?) Http://www.ebmp.org/

The University of Washington

Early Buddhist Manuscripts Project

The University of Washington Early Buddhist Manuscripts Project was founded in September 1996 in order to promote the study, editing, and publication of a unique collection of twenty-nine fragments of Buddhist manuscripts on birch-bark scrolls, written in the Kharo ?? hi script and the Gandhari language, that were acquired by the British Library in 1994. Additional Gandhari manuscripts have since come to light, and the Early Buddhist Manuscripts Project is now in charge of research on a total of fifty-five major fragments (in the British Library , the Senior collection, the University of Washington Libraries, and the Library of Congress) as well as numerous smaller fragments (primarily in the Schøyen collection and the "Bibliothèque nationale de France"). These fragments date from the first to third centuries AD, and as such are the oldest surviving Buddhist manuscripts. They promise to provide unprecedented insights into the early history of Buddhism in northern India and in Central and East Asia. Research findings and translations are being presented in publications of the University of Washington Press.


F.

Four Noble Truths (W3)

The "Four Noble Truths" are the tenets of Buddhism.
  • All life is suffering
  • The cause of suffering is ignorant desire
  • This desire can be destroyed
  • The means to this is the eightfold path


(E?) (L?) Http://www.americanliterature.com/WORDS.HTML


G

H

Hinduism (W3)

(E3) (L1) http://www.hanisauland.de/info/allebegriffe.html

...
"Hinduism", one of the great world religions, is the most important religion in India. About 800 million "Hinduists" live there. Every human being ("Hindu" translates as "human") belongs, the Hinduists assume, to a certain "caste". This means a class of society that is strictly separated from all other layers of society. The uppermost caste are priests ("Brahmins"), then come "Warriors", "Peasants" and "Artisans" and finally "Servants". Outside the box are the "parias", the "unlawful" and the "outlawed".
...


(E?) (L?) Http://hinduism.about.com/library/weekly/extra/bl-intro-index.htm


I.

J

JBE (W3)

"JBE" stands for "Journal of Buddhist Ethics".

The Journal of Buddhist Ethics is the first academic journal dedicated entirely to Buddhist ethics.

(E?) (L?) Http://www.buddhistethics.org/
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K

Kama (W3)

(E?) (L?) Http://www.asiasource.org/reference/display.cfm?wordid=1460
"Kama", "Kamadeva" was / is the name of the Hindu god of love.
Originally "Kama" (in the Vedic religion) referred to the "urge for good".

Sanskrit "kma" = "love", "desire" = "love".

(E?) (L?) Http://dictionary.reference.com/


Kama Sutra
Kamasutra (W3)

The name for the "doctrine of love" compatible with Hindu laws, Sanskrit. "kmastram" is made up of "kma" = "love" and "stram" = "string", "manual", for example "characters", "sequence" ("guide"), "manual".

The Indian "textbook of the art of love" dates from the 4th century and was written by the Brahmin "Mallanga Vatsyayana". In many cases, the interest is limited to the love positions described. However, the Kamasutra also contains information on ancient Indian culture.

(E1) (L1) http://etimologias.dechile.net/?K


(E1) (L1) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Kama+Sutra


(E?) (L?) Http://www.liebes-lexikon.de/


(E?) (L1) http://www.onmeda.de/sexualitaet_und_partektiven/lexikon_der_sexualitaet/glossar.html?p=9
Glossary: ​​Kamasutra
Indian love textbook from the 4th century AD. One of the great cultural and historical works of world literature. The work gives advice and hints for almost all areas of love and sexuality. Comes from the Hindu religious doctrine.

(E?) (L?) Http://dictionary.reference.com/


(E1) (L1) http://www.w-akten.de/kuerzel.phtml

"KAMASUTRA" = "Crisp, attractive man looking for a dream woman"


(E?) (L?) Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_English_words_of_Sanskrit_origin


(E?) (L?) Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamasutra

Kamasutra is an instrumental album by Prince released in 1998. It was included with the Crystal Ball 3-CD set, orderable from Prince's website. It was not included with the set available in retail stores. The album was written to be played during Prince's wedding to Mayte in 1996. All the tracks are instrumentals, ranging from classical music, jazz and experimentations with various sounds. For example, the track "Cutz" uses the sound of scissors snipping as its basis. One of the tracks, "The Plan" was previewed in an excerpt on the 1996 opus, Emancipation.


All links on the etymology portal are without guarantee - but with this link I would like to point this out again separately.
After all, one can find the French names for the various love positions of the Kama Sutra.

(E?) (L?) Http://sexyavenue.com/doctor/theme.php?CategorieS1Idx=5&comfrom=40072&lang=L0

Positions de base. • Positions intermédiaires. • Positions experts. • Positional extremes. • Positions "Femme au dessous" • Positions "Femme au dessus" • Positions "par derrière" • Positions assises. • Positions agenouillées. • Positions côte à côte. • Position debout. • Positions mobiles • L'union de l'Aigle. • La position de l'Alignement parfait. • L'union des Amants. • La position d'Andromaque. • L'union de l'Antilope. • La posture de l'Arbre à fruit. • La posture de la balance. • La posture de la Balancoire. • La posture du Bambou. • L'union du Boa. • La posture de la Charrue. • L'union du Chat. • La position du Chevauchement. • La posture des Ciseaux. • La position de la Courtisane. • L'union du Crabe. • La posture des Cuillières. • La position de la Danse du Missionaire. • L'union de la Déesse. • L'union de l'Eléphant. • L'union de l'Emeu. • La posture de l'Enclume. • La posture de l'Etoile. • La position de la Grande Overture. • L'union de la Grenouille. • L'union de l'Huitre. • La position de l'Indra. • La position du Lotus. • L'union du Loup. • The posture de la Lune. • La position du Missionnaire. • Le mobile du Moulin. • L'union du Papillon. • L'union de la Pie. • L'union de la Pieuvre. • La posture du Pilier. • Le mobile de la Roue. • La posture du Saule. • L'union du Scorpion. • L'union du Singe. • L'union suspendue. • La posture de la Tige. • L'union du Tigre. • L'union de la Tortue. • L'union de la Vache (ou Levrette). • La posture du Yin et du Yang.


Karma - rose

(E?) (L?) Http://www.helpmefind.com/rose/roses.php?tab=2&grp=K


(E?) (L?) Http://www.helpmefind.com/rose/pl.php?n=3583


karma
creare (W3)

The Buddhist "karma" means = "action", "deed" (verb, sanskr. "Karoti" = "performs", "does", "acts"). It describes the action that determines the form of a person's rebirth (the next incarnation) or the fate derived from it.

Related to "karma" are the Latin "creare" and thus German "create". "create", French "créer", Italian "creare", Spanish "crear" = "create", "invent". In Russian one finds "chary" = "magic", "sorcery" and "charovat" = "enchant", "delight". And German, French "charme" = "magic", German also "Scharm" from Latin "carmen" = "song", "song", "magic formula" is probably related to "karma" (where I have not yet found any direct evidence).

In Buddhist and Hindu belief, the ethical consequences of a person's life, which determine his or her fate.

(E?) (L?) Http://www.allrecordlabels.com/db/0/9970.html


(E?) (L?) Http://www.instantkarma.co.uk/
Instant karma

(E?) (L?) Http://www.allrecordlabels.com/db/6/14786.html


(E?) (L?) Http://www.karmageddonmedia.com/
Karmageddon Media

(E?) (L?) Http://www.allrecordlabels.com/db/5/195.html


(E?) (L?) Http://www.nokarma.com/
No karma

(E?) (L?) Http://www.alphadictionary.com/goodword/word/karma


It is certainly interesting that karma is also in "teraflop". This is a combination of "tera" and an abbreviation for "FLoating point OPerations". And for "tera" you can find the following note in "alphadictionary":

(E?) (L?) Http://www.alphadictionary.com/goodword/word/teraflop

...
The prefix "tera-" is even more unusual; it comes from Greek "teras" = "monster", and does not even suggest its meaning here, "trillion". The Greek word came from an old PIE verb meaning "do", "make", the same root that gave Sanskrit "karma" = "act", "deed".
...


(E?) (L?) Https://www.bartleby.com/45/3/
Buddhist Writings: Karma | Fruitful and Bars Karma | Good and Bad Karma

(E1) (L1) https://www.bartleby.com/81/9429.html


(E?) (L?) Https://www.bartleby.com/81/9430.html
Karma’thians

(E?) (L?) Http://www.bhakti-yoga.ch/FAQ/Karma/Karma.html
Karma - balance in the school of life

(E?) (L?) Http://www.bhakti-yoga.ch/Buch/SanskritW/WorterklaerungHK.html

karma
1. "Deed", "Action"
2. "Fate" brought about by the inescapable consequences of deeds in previous lives. Each act or omission creates a corresponding response which, in the course of continued incarnations, manifests itself in the form of happiness, suffering, or a mixture of the two.


(E2) (L2) http://www.blueprints.de/wortschatz/
(old Indian, "deed")
"Karma" is a crucial term in the Hindu, Buddhist and Jainist understanding of the world. According to this doctrine, every good or bad deed sets off a process of retribution, which in no way leads to retribution in another life (transmigration of souls).
(© blueprints team)

(E?) (L?) Http://www.cnrtl.fr/etymologie/karma


(E?) (L?) Http://www.cnrtl.fr/etymologie/karman


(E?) (L?) Http://www.cnrtl.fr/etymologie/karmatique


(E?) (L?) Http://www.crystalinks.com/karma.html


(E?) (L?) Http://www.crystalinks.com/reincarnation.html


(E?) (L?) Http://www.crystalinks.com/wheelofkarma.html

WHEEL OF KARMA - CYCLES OF TIME
The Wheel of Karma is the Alchemy Wheel of Creation that spirals around as if in the loops of a slinky toy - allow souls to move consciousness from one level to another.
...


(E?) (L?) Http://lexicon.ff.cuni.cz/pdf/pgmc_torp/pgmc_torp.pdf
"karma", "karmi" m. "lamentation". as. "karm" m.

(E1) (L1) http://etimologias.dechile.net/?karma


(E?) (L?) Http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=karma


(E?) (L?) Http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=karma


(E?) (L?) Http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Sanskrit
1827, in Buddhism, the sum of a person's actions in one life, which determine his form in the next; from Skt. "karman-" = "action", "fate", related to "krnoti", Avestan "kerenaoiti" = "makes", O.Pers. "kunautiy" = "he makes"; from PIE base "* kwer-" = "to make", "form", related to the second element in "Sanskrit".

(E?) (L?) Http://www.karmacartoons.com/indexx.html
Here you will find the cartoons of the "Karma" weekly columns that have been published since February 1998.

(E6) (L?) Http://www.laut.de/wortlaut/
  • Karma Come: The band from the Ruhr area ...
  • Karma To Burn: Hicksville, West Virginia. Deepest truck driver province in America, which has little to offer besides the usual fast food restaurants. ...


(E?) (L1) http://religion.orf.at/projekt03/religionen/hindu/fachartikel/re_hin_fa_reinkarnationundkarma2-96.htm
Professional article: Reincarnation and karma in the religious conception of Hinduism

(E?) (L?) Http://www.parasearch.de/mysteria/x/x1397.htm


(E?) (L?) Http://dictionary.reference.com/


(E?) (L?) Http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=karma


(E?) (L?) Http://www.skepdic.com/karma.html


(E1) (L1) http://www.symbols.com/index/wordindex-k.html


(E?) (L?) Http://www.symbols.com/encyclopedia/53/5348.html
Characters: karma from earlier lives

(E3) (L1) http://www.textlog.de/3786.html


(E1) (L1) http://www.wortwarte.de/
Karma dissolution, karma counseling, karmakarization

(E?) (L1) http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=karma
karma | Karma (love) | karma banking | karma by association | Karma Cap | karma chameleon | karma face | karma fuck | Karma Grave | karma hotel | karma martyr | karma payment plan | Karma Police | karma slap | Karma thread | karma whore | karma ++ | karmabug | Karmaceutical | Karmachanic | karmacidal | karmacosmically | karmageddon | karmaggedeon | karmalation | karmally | karmamechanic | Karman | karmann | Karmann Ghia | karmaquest | karmaquest02 | KARMARICAL | karmasexual | karmasuedya | Karma Sutra

(E?) (L?) Http://uwacadweb.uwyo.edu/Religionet/er/buddhism/BGLOSSRY.HTM#karma
For Buddhism, as in Hinduism, this is the moral law of cause and effect. People build up karma (both good and bad) as a result of their actions. This then determines the

(E?) (L?) Http://uwacadweb.uwyo.edu/Religionet/er/buddhism/BGLOSSRY.HTM#state
state of existence to which one is reborn after birth. In Buddhism, the different levels can include hells, humans or animals in this world, or one of several heavens.

(E?) (L?) Http://uwacadweb.uwyo.edu/Religionet/er/buddhism/BGLOSSRY.HTM#zen
"koan" A riddle-like puzzle used for teaching in Zen Buddhism. It cannot be solved by reason, but instead forces the student to solve it through a flash of insight. A well-known example is the question, "What is the sound of one hand clapping?" For a collection of koans,

(E?) (L?) Http://uwacadweb.uwyo.edu/Religionet/er/buddhism/BGLOSSRY.HTM#bodhisattva
Bodhisattva of Compassion. Although originally depicted as male, he gradually became represented as female. She appears to all who need her help, especially those threatened by water, demons, sword or fire. Childless women often turn to her for help.

(E?) (L?) Http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glossar_hinduistischer_Begriffe

"Karma" (law of action, consequence of the actions of an individual)


(E?) (L?) Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karma


(E?) (L?) Http://www.wordsmith.org/awad/archives/1096


(E?) (L?) Http://www.wordsmith.org/awad/archives/1003


(E?) (L?) Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_English_words_of_Sanskrit_origin


(E?) (L?) Https://www.yourdictionary.com/karma


L.

M.

Mandala (W3)

The "mandala" is a mostly round or square representation that serves as a meditation aid in Indian religions. The Sanskrit "mandala" means "circle".

(E?) (L?) Http://wordcraft.infopop.cc/Dictionary/part4.htm

an intricate design signifying the universe (Hinduism, Buddhism)


mangal sutra (W3)

(E?) (L?) Http://www.asiasource.org/reference/display.cfm?wordid=100
That sanskrit. "Stram" not only in the figurative sense "guide" but also specifically "chain" can be seen in "mangal sutra" = "wedding chain" of black gun metal and gold beads, popular all over north and west India.

N

Nirvana (W3)

The Sanskrit word "nirvana" means "to go out" and was originally related to the extinction of a flame. Buddha related this meaning to the three sources of all human suffering, to the "extinction of desire, hatred and ignorance". Achieving perfect nirvana meant "liberation from the cycle of births" ("samsara").

(E?) (L?) Http://mizian.com.ne.kr/englishwiz/library/explore/devil%27s_dictionary.htm
NIRVANA, n. In the Buddhist religion, a state of pleasurable annihilation awarded to the wise, particularly to those wise enough to understand it.

(E?) (L?) Http://www.takeourword.com/Issue095.html

Literally, "nirvana" meant "extinction" and was used to describe a fire which had died or a lamp which had gone out. This was merely its literal meaning but it was also used figuratively in a medical sense. When someone was suffering from a fever they were said to be "burning" as if with a fire. Then, when the fever subsided and the "fire" had died, they were said to have achieved "nirvana". When the Buddha introduced the notion of "nirvana" in his first "sutra" (lecture) at the Deer Park near Benares, he knew that his listeners were familiar with this medical meaning. Later, at the hands of philosophers, "nirvana" came to imply a lot of things which were beyond the ken of ordinary speakers of Magadhi.


(E?) (L?) Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_band_name_etymologies


(E?) (L?) Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nirvana


(E?) (L?) Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nirvana_(band)

Nirvana - In Buddhist teachings, "nirvana" means an end to dissatisfaction, suffering and pain, a state singer "Kurt Cobain" hoped to achieve through his music.


Nirvana (W3)

(E2) (L2) http://www.blueprints.de/wortschatz/
(Sanskrit "going out"); "Nirvana" is the state of salvation that Buddhism strives for. It means the cessation of the longing for existence and entering into the eternal nothingness, which is regarded as the completion of life. This state can already be reached on earth through meditation and is the end of rebirths after death or the desired, complete perishing in the absolute.
(© blueprints team)

The etymology of the word "nirvana" is given differently. According to Colebrooke (Transact. Of the Roy. Asiatic. Soc., Vol. I, p. 566) it comes from "Wa" = "blow like the wind", preceded by the negation "Nir", meaning "calm", but as an adjective "extinguished". - Obry too, you Nirvana India, says p. 3: "Nirvanam" en sanscrit signifie à la lettre "extinction", telle que celle d'un feu. - According to the Asiatic Journal, Vol. 24, p.735, it is actually called "Nerawana", from "nera" = "without", and "wana" = "life", and the meaning would be "annihilatio". - In Eastern Monachism, by Spence Hardy, p. 295, nirvana is derived from "Wana" = "sinful desires", with the negation "nir". - J. J. Schmidt, in his translation of the history of the Eastern Mongols, p. 307, says that the Sanskrit word "Nirwana" is translated in Mongolian by a phrase which means: "separated from misery" - "escaped from misery". - According to the same scholar's lectures at the Petersburg Academy, "Nirvana" is the opposite of "Sansara", which is the world of constant rebirths, lust and desire, delusion of the senses and changeable forms, of being born, aging, illness and death. - In the Burmese language, the word "Nirvana", analogous to the other Sanskrit words, is transformed into "Nieban" and is translated as "complete disappearance". See Sangermano's Description of the Burmese empire, transl. by Tandy, Rome 1833, § 27. In the first edition of 1819 I also wrote "Nieban" because at that time we only knew Buddhaism from scant news from the Burmese.

(Q: [Schopenhauer: The world as will and imagination, p. 2358. 100 works of philosophy that everyone must have, p. 43026 (cf. Schopenhauer-ZA vol. 4, p. 0)])

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Religion from IN