How to score the cbcl

“Terminal burrowing behavior” —a phenomenon of lethal hypothermia

  • 1.

    Abedin Z, Cherney DD, DiDido LJA (1975) Myocardium of hypothermic rats with and without administration of dextran. Lab Invest 33: 324

    Google Scholar

  • 2.

    Bligh J (1973) Temperature regulation in mammals and other vertebrates. North Holland, Amsterdam, pp 50-55

    Google Scholar

  • 3.

    Buris L (1993) Forensic medicine. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 146-148

    Google Scholar

  • 4.

    Coniam SW (1979) Accidental hypothermia. Anaesthesiologist 34: 250-256

    Google Scholar

  • 5.

    Cottier H (1980) Pathogenesis. Volume 1. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 615-617, 874-875, 956

    Google Scholar

  • 6.

    DiMaio DJ, DiMaio VIM (1989) Forensic pathology. Elsevier, Amsterdam New York, pp 384-388

    Google Scholar

  • 7.

    Dimhofer R, Sigrist T (1979) Muscle bleeding in the core of the body - a sign of a vital reaction to death from hypothermia? Contribution Court Med 37: 159-166

    Google Scholar

  • 8.

    Dreifuss H (1977) Fatal Hypothermia: Accident or Crime? Criminology 31: 205-206

    Google Scholar

  • 9.

    Drese G (1984) Hypothermia - Cause of Death or Major Additional Findings? Kriminal Forensische Wiss 55/56: 184-189

    Google Scholar

  • 10.

    Duguid H, Simpson G, Stowers J (1961) Accidental hypothermia. Lancet 2: 1213-1219

    Google Scholar

  • 11.

    Ganong WF (1979) Textbook of Medical Physiology, 4th edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 224-225

    Google Scholar

  • 12.

    Giebe W, Demme U (1984) Qualitative and quantitative detection of acetone in the blood and urine of people who have died from hypothermia. Kriminal Forensische Wiss 55/56: 190–192

    Google Scholar

  • 13.

    Gillner E, Waltz H (1971) On the symptoms of freezing. Kriminal Forensische Wiss 5: 179-185

    Google Scholar

  • 14.

    Goremsen H (1972) Why have victims of death from the cold undressed? Med Sci Law 12: 201-202

    Google Scholar

  • 15.

    Heldmaier G (1993) Seasonal acclimatization of small mammals. Verh Dtsch Zool Ges 86: 67-77

    Google Scholar

  • 16.

    Heldmaier G, Ruf T (1992) Body temperature and metabolic rate during natural hypothermia in endotherms. J Comp Physiol 162: 696-706

    Google Scholar

  • 17.

    Heldmaier G, Steinlechner S (1981) Seasonal pattern and energetics of short daily torpor in the djungarian hamster, Phodopus sungorus. Oecologia 48: 265-270

    Google Scholar

  • 18.

    Heldmaier G, Ortmann S, Körtner G (1993) Energy requirements of hibernating alpine marmots. In: Carey C (ed) Life in the cold - ecological, physiological, and molecular mechanisms. Westview Press, Boulder, pp 175-183

    Google Scholar

  • 19.

    Hirvonen J (1976) Necropsy findings in fatal hypothermia cases. J Forensic Sci 8: 155-164

    Google Scholar

  • 20.

    Hirvonen J (1977) Local and systemic effects of accidental hypothermia. In: Tedeshi CG, Eckert WG, Tedeshi LG (eds) Forensic medicine Vol 1. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 758-774

    Google Scholar

  • 21.

    Hirvonen J, Huttunen P (1982) Increased urinary concentration of catecholamines in hypothermia deaths. J Forensic Sci 27: 264-271

    Google Scholar

  • 22.

    Keferstein (1893) Corpse findings after frostbite. Z Medical Officials 6: 201-208

    Google Scholar

  • 23.

    Kinzinger R, Riße M, Puschel K (1991) “Cold idiocy” - paradoxical undressing in hypothermic conditions. Arch Kriminol 187: 47-56

    Google Scholar

  • 24.

    Kortelainen ML (1987) Drugs and alcohol in hypothermia and hypothermia related deaths. J Forensic Sci 32: 1704-1712

    Google Scholar

  • 25.

    Krjukoff A (1914) Contribution to the question of death by freezing to death. Vjschrgerichtl Med 47: 79-101

    Google Scholar

  • 26.

    Lloyd EL (1988) Hypothermia in the elderly. Med Sci Law 28: 107-114

    Google Scholar

  • 27.

    Madea B, Oehmichen M (1989) Unusual findings in a case of hypothermia. Z Rechtsmed 102: 59-67

    Google Scholar

  • 28.

    Mant AK (1969) Autopsy diagnosis of accidental hypothermia. J Forensic Med 16: 126-129

    Google Scholar

  • 29.

    Maxeiner H (1994) On the local vital reaction in hypothermia. Forensic Medicine 4: 80-84

    Google Scholar

  • 30.

    Molnár GW (1946) Survival of hypothermia by men immersed in the ocean. JAMA 131: 1046-1050

    Google Scholar

  • 31.

    Müller E (1955) The pathology of general hypothermia in humans. Acta Neuroveg 11: 146-168

    Google Scholar

  • 32.

    Paton BC (1983) Accidental hypothermia. Pharmacol Ther 22: 331-377

    Google Scholar

  • 33.

    Polson L, Gee D, Knight B (1985) The essentials of forensic medicine. Pergamon Press, Oxford New York, pp 210-215

    Google Scholar

  • 34.

    Prescott LF, Peard MC, Wallace JR (1962) Accidental hypothermia, a common condition. BMJ 2: 1367-1370

    Google Scholar

  • 35.

    Prokop O (1960) textbook of forensic medicine. VEB Verlag Volk und Gesundheit, Berlin, pp 124–125

    Google Scholar

  • 36.

    Reddick RL, Poole BL, Penick GD (1973) Mechanism of induction and recovery. Lab Invest 28: 270

    Google Scholar

  • 37.

    Reuter F (1933) textbook of forensic medicine. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Munich Vienna Baltimore, pp 376–377

    Google Scholar

  • 38.

    Ruf T, Heldmaier G (1992) The impact of daily torpor on energy requirements in the djungarian hamster, Phodopus sungorus. Physiol Zool 65: 994-1010

    Google Scholar

  • 39.

    Ruf T, Klingenspor M, Preis H, Heldmaier G (1991) Daily torpor in the djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus): interactions with food intake, activity, and social behavior. J Comp Physiol [B] 160: 609-615

    Google Scholar

  • 40.

    Sano ME, Smith CW (1940) Fifty post-mortem patients with cancer subjected to local or generalized refrigeration. J Lab Clin Med 26: 443-444

    Google Scholar

  • 41.

    Schneider V, Klug E (1980) Death from hypothermia. Are there any new aspects of diagnostics? Z Rechtsmed 86: 59-69

    Google Scholar

  • 42.

    Simon A, Müller E (1971) Some aspects of the physiology and morphology of cold death with special consideration of the so-called cold thyroid gland. Criminal Forensic Science 6: 131-138

    Google Scholar

  • 43.

    Sivaloganathan S (1986) Paradoxical undressing and hypothermia. Med Sci Law 26: 225-229

    Google Scholar

  • 44.

    Thrun C (1992) Obesity of the tubular epithelia of the kidney - an indication of hypothermia? Forensic Medicine 2: 55-58

    Google Scholar

  • 45.

    Trevino A, Razi BR, Beller BM (1971) The characteristic electrocardiogram of accidental hypothermia. Arch Intern Med 127: 470-473

    Google Scholar

  • 46.

    Unterdorfer H (1977) Statistics and morphology of hypothermic death. Medical practice 29: 459-460

    Google Scholar

  • 47.

    Vogt FD, Lynch GR (1982) Influence of ambient temperature, nest availability, huddling, and daily torpor on energy expenditure in the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus. Physiol Zool 55: 56-63

    Google Scholar

  • 48.

    Watzka M (1942) Capillary hyperemia and epithelial exfoliation on the thyroid gland who froze to death. Z Mikrosk Anat Forsch 51: 73-86

    Google Scholar

  • 49.

    Wedin B, Vanggaard L, Hirvonen J (1979) Paradoxical undressing in fatal hypothermia. J Forensic Sci 24: 543-553

    Google Scholar

  • 50.

    Wischnewsky S (1895) A new sign of death by freezing to death. Messenger Judgment Med 3: 12-20

    Google Scholar