How do copper beeches make photosynthetic autotrophs

Structure and function of an ecosystem

The two main aspects of an ecosystem are structure and function.

By structure we mean:

(i) Composition of the biological community, including species, numbers, biomass, life history and distribution in space, etc.

(ii) the amount and distribution of non-living materials such as nutrients, water, etc. and

(iii) the range or gradient of the conditions of existence such as temperature, light, etc.

By function we mean:

(i) the rate of biological energy flow, i.e. the rate of production and respiration of the community,

(ii) material velocity or nutrient cycles and

(iii) biological or ecological regulation, including both regulation of organisms by the environment (photoperiodism, etc.) and regulation of the environment by the organism (nitrogen fixing organisms, etc.). In each ecosystem, structure and function (rate functions) are examined together.

Structure of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem has two main components: abiotic and biotic.

Abiotic (non-living) component includes:

(i) The amount of inorganic substances such as P, S, C, N, H etc. that are involved in material cycles. The amount of these inorganic substances that are present in an ecosystem at any given time is called the standing state or standing quality.

(ii) Amount and distribution of inorganic chemicals such as chlorophylls, etc., and of organic materials, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, etc., either present in the biomass or in the environment, ie biochemical structures that make up the biotic and abiotic components of connect the ecosystem,

(iii) The climate of the respective region. The biotic (living) component is in fact the trophic structure of an ecosystem in which living organisms are distinguished according to their nutritional relationships. Biotechnological components of an ecosystem have two sub-components: autotrophs and heterotrophs.

(i) autotrophic component:

When fixing the light energy, the use of simple inorganic substances and the structure of complex substances predominate. The component consists mainly of green plants, including photosynthetic bacteria. To a lesser extent, chemosynthetic microbes also contribute to the accumulation of organic matter. Members of the autotrophic component are called producers.

(ii) heterotrophic component:

In this use, the rearrangement and decomposition of complex materials predominate. The organisms involved are called consumers because they consume the matter built up by the manufacturers (autotrophs). Consumers are further classified as macro and micro consumers.

a) Macro consumers:

These are the consumers who are herbivores, carnivores (or omnivores) in the order in which they appear in a food chain. Herbivores are also known as primary consumers. Secondary and tertiary consumers are carnivores or omnivores, if any. They are all phagotrophs, which mainly include animals that ingest other organic and particulate organic matter.

b) Small consumers:

These are popularly referred to as decomposers. They are saprotrophs (osmotrophs) and mainly include bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi. They break down complex compounds of dead or living protoplasm, absorb some of the breakdown or breakdown products and release inorganic nutrients into the environment, making them available again for autotrophs.

The biotic component of any ecosystem can be thought of as the functional realm of nature as it is based on the type of diet and the energy source used. The trophic structure of an ecosystem is a kind of producer agreement in which each “food level” is referred to as a trophic level.

The amount of living material in various trophic amounts or in a component population is called a standing crop, a term that applies to both plants and animals. The standing crop can be expressed as (i) number of organisms per unit area or (ii) biomass, i.e. organism mass in unit area, which can be measured as live weight, dry weight, ashless dry weight or carbon weight, or calories or any other suitable unit that can be used for Suitable for comparison purposes.

Function of an ecosystem:

Many of the most important relationships between living organisms and the environment are ultimately controlled by the amount of available energy received from the sun at the earth's surface. It is this energy that helps power biotic systems. Plants can use solar energy to convert inorganic chemicals into organic compounds. Only a very small part of the sunlight that is received at the earth's surface is converted into biochemical form.

Living organisms can basically use energy in two ways: radiant or solid. Radiant energy is in the form of electromagnetic energy like light. Fixed energy is the potential chemical energy in organic substances. This energy can be released through breathing. Organisms that draw energy from inorganic sources and can fix it in high-energy organic molecules are called autotrophs.

When this energy comes from light, these organisms are called photosynthetic autotrophs. In most ecosystems, plants are the predominant photosynthetic autotroph. Organisms that require a fixed energy to survive in organic molecules are called heterotrophs. Heterotrophs that get their energy from living organisms are called consumers.

Consumers can be of two basic types: consumer and decompiler. Consumers who consume plants are known as herbivores. Carnivores are consumers who eat herbivores or other carnivores. Decomposers or detritivors are heterotrophs that get their energy either from dead organisms or from organic compounds dispersed in the environment.

The behavior of energy in the ecosystem can be described as energy flow due to the unidirectional energy flow. From an energetic point of view, it is important for an ecosystem to understand:

(i) Manufacturers' efficiency in absorbing and converting solar energy

(ii) the use of this converted chemical form of energy by consumers

(iii) the total energy input from food and its assimilation efficiency

(iv) the loss through breathing, heat, excretion, etc.

(v) the gross net production. Two energy models to understand a typical ecosystem. They are single-channel energy models and g-shaped energy flow models.