What do Carunculae myrtiformes look like

Denture of the lower jaw

Synonyms

Full denture, total denture, 28th, "The Third"

introduction

After a certain age, many people are faced with the question of which prosthetic onedentures in the case of a complete tooth loss. Either you can put your entire teeth in Lower jaw by Dental implants replace what, however, a larger and expensive surgery is.

In most cases, the patients let themselvesFull dentures made of plastic make. A Denture in the lower jaw ensures the Chewing and speaking function and also achieves an attractive result from an aesthetic point of view.

Advantages and disadvantages of a total lower jaw prosthesis

Dentures offer the patient some advantages. That's how she is not so expensive and will too supported by health insurance. she can without bone augmentation or other pretreatments can be made and subsequent extensions, improvements or additions are easy to handle.

Disadvantageous however, that one is with a prosthesis does not have the chewing capacitylike with a fixed denture. Besides, it can be too Problems with holding the prosthesis which occurs more frequently, especially in the lower jaw. The lower jaw does not offer the same large contact surface as the upper jaw for a full denture, so that the hold in the lower jaw is mostly only due to the surrounding tissue, such as the muscles, and less due to the suction effect that occurs with the maxillary palate plate.

Manufacture of a full denture

The full denture should externally, as soon as it has been inserted in the patient's mouth, Not of a to distinguish natural dentition be.
Regardless of whether the patient smiles, speaks or eats, the prosthesis should be as normal as possible Gumsand simulate the natural teeth. Until then, however, it is a more elaborate and more tedious Manufacturing processwhich also require a lot of time in the dental laboratory to manufacture the prosthesis.

As a rule, the prosthesis consists entirely of plastic. Both the gums and the teeth are made of plastic.
This makes it possible to use any type of tooth color and shape and also to make the gums natural and pink. The right prosthesis can be individually made for each patient so that it matches the rest of the appearance. A tall, slender man receives different teeth than, for example, a smaller woman.

Go to the dentist several impressions which are then forwarded to the dental laboratory.
The dental technician also receives all the important information regarding the fullness of the lips, the smile line or the center line. There the Models Poured in plaster of paris and are used for the further manufacture of the dental prosthesis. The lower jaw prosthesis is first set up in wax. The teeth are placed in the wax in such a way that they correspond to the natural dentition and chewing movements can be carried out so that the patient can later move the jaw to the right, left, front or back without any problems. If this is correct, more wax is applied and the gums are modeled.

Then the Trying on the wax prosthesis in the patient's mouth. The dentist uses this to check whether the set-up, tooth shape and color match the patient and whether all movements can be carried out and good chewing function can be guaranteed.

In the next step, the wax model is transferred to plastic, the finished one End product. Different plastics and manufacturing processes are used. So it can be stuffed cold or injected warm. Thus, the wax disappears and is replaced by liquid plastic, which hardens. The teeth remain in their position.

In the next step, the prosthesis is processed. It gets a high gloss polished and excess residue removed. The different movements are also checked again so that they can be inserted into the patient's mouth at the end.

Modern plastics have already developed to the point where they are no longer harmful to the body. Nevertheless, there may be intolerances. Can on the patient Pressure points be eliminated and the functions and aesthetics checked.

How does the full denture hold in the lower jaw?

At first glance it seems a bit puzzling how a full denture can even hold, because after all there are no teeth left to attach them to. Nevertheless, it is possible to talk to her and eat her without her falling out. Therefore there is three important factors.

  1. The first factor is based on the occlusal stabilization. This means that the Row of teeth from the upper jaw, be it normal teeth or also a full denture, in the closed mouth and sometimes also during movements, Have contact with the teeth in the lower jaw. So is a static stabilization secured.
     
  2. The second factor is the storage of the full denture in the surrounding soft tissue. The prosthesis is made to fit perfectly placed on the alveolar ridge and covered on the sides by muscles and cheeks becomes. This is also known as muscle grip. For example, the posterior tooth areas of the prosthesis are designed to be convex and the anterior tooth area to be concave in order to give the tissue and muscles the opportunity to snuggle up. This is the primary hold in the lower jaw.
     
  3. The third factor is based on one Valve mechanism. There are air bubbles between the prosthesis to be placed (prosthesis base) and the tissue underneath (prosthesis bed). These are expressed when inserting the prosthesis. If the edges of the prosthesis are optimally designed, the air can no longer return, so that a vacuum arises and the The prosthesis is firmly attached.

This could also be of interest to you if the prosthesis no longer holds up well: Reline the denture

What to do if the lower jaw prosthesis does not hold

Because of the very narrow Lower jaw bone and the constant movement of the soft tissue there (mucous membrane and muscles), problems arise with the fit of the prosthesis, especially in the lower jaw. First of all, from dentist Let clarify why the prosthesis is no longer holding sufficiently.

Changes in the lower jaw bone or a change in the bite ratio can be considered for this. These lead to a reduction in the Suction effect between the prosthesis base and the oral mucosa, which is generated by means of the saliva in between. If this effect decreases, the hold of the prosthesis is reduced.

In addition to a Relining the prosthesis can be the use of Adhesives such as denture adhesive creams, adhesive powder, etc. to improve the wearing situation. Also the installation of additional Anchoring elements such as an implant or a push button can improve the fit of the prosthesis in the lower jaw.

Read more on this topic:Loosening of the dentures

Relining the prosthesis

The Relining is a way to improve the hold and fit of a prosthesis. With the help of specific Plastics the ill-fitting prosthesis is adapted to the current jaw conditions customized. The relining can be done in the form of a direct method by the dentist or in the form of an indirect method in the dental laboratory or in the dental technician's laboratory.

Read on under: How is a denture relined?

Push button

In the Snap button prosthesis it is a dental prosthesis, in which a push button, in the form of a ball anchor, acts as a stabilizing Connecting element acts between the jaw and the prosthesis, being an anchor Implant is necessary.

A cap is anchored in the dental prosthesis, which can be placed precisely onto the spherical head anchor and clicks into place there in the form of a snap mechanism.

Through this procedure a improved hold of the prosthesis can be achieved. At the same time, it can be removed daily from the push button and cleaned thoroughly, which prevents the development of gingivitis. The aesthetics of a push button prosthesis is also to be assessed positively, since the retaining elements are not visible.

Adhesive

The use of a Adhesive cream is another way to improve the hold of a prosthesis. However, it should only be used as a Stopgap be used because it reduces the sense of taste on the one hand and the production of saliva on the other.

Regardless of whether the adhesive is cream or powder The method of application remains the same: a thin layer is applied to the clean and dry denture base, then the denture is inserted and held in place for a few seconds with light pressure.

Adhesive represents no permanent solution dar and some patients have to several times a day repeat the application of the adhesive to ensure adequate denture hold in the lower jaw.
If the prosthesis only fits like this, a visit to the dentist is recommended. This can possibly improve the fit and hold in the long term by relining or reassembling.

Find out more at:Denture adhesive

Getting used to the new prosthesis

After insertion A new denture in the lower jaw feels like a large, uncomfortable foreign body at first. One wonders how to talk and eat with them without that everything is disturbing. This is completely natural because the body needs to be get used to it first. It is not possible to simulate an identical feeling to natural teeth, but once you have spent a certain amount of time with the denture, you hardly notice it.

It can too difficult at the beginning be, speaking correctly, especially when it comes to "s", "sch", "f" or "w" sounds. With something exercise but this is not a permanent problem either The cheek muscles and the tongue have to learnholding the prosthesis correctly and making sounds with it.

Besides, it can due to the stress to the increased breakdown of the bone substance come. This goes hand in hand with frequent relining of the prosthesis in order to adapt it to the new conditions in the mouth and thus Pressure points to avoid and to improve the grip. There are also in the lower jaw sharp edges from the jawbone which also influence the hold.

Regular inspection visits at the dentist are therefore compulsory. Also can Leftovers entangled under the prosthesis causing an uncomfortable feeling. The Sense of taste can be affected as large parts of the palate are covered with a plastic sheet. In unsuitable situations, the prosthesis can fall out or kick Rattling noises when speaking on.

Is the Stop the lower jaw prosthesis insufficiently given, can Snap fasteners in the jaw be anchored onto which the prosthesis is pressed. There are holes in the denture into which the button heads in the lower jaw fit. This improves the hold of the prosthesis essential and falling out is difficult. To do this, however, there must be enough bone substance to insert the implants on which the button is placed. Furthermore come higher cost towards the patient.

Pressure points

After inserting a new denture in the lower jaw, smaller Pressure points or Inflammation occur on the oral mucosa. These are due to the new situation and disappear on their own after the acclimatization phase.

However, kick larger pressure points on, too after a long period of wear, is an appointment with dentist advisable, as the prosthesis will not fit correctly and the pressure will be distributed unevenly, so that the tissue and the bones can be damaged. As a result, the The alveolar ridge degrades faster. The Shrinkage of the jawbones occurs due to the pressure load because the jaw is not suitable for compressive forces, but for tensile forces.

The jawbone breaks down, this not only has dental implications but decreases as well Influence on the external appearance, as the proportions of the face change, the lower jaw moves "forward" and more wrinkles appear.

Also read the article on the topic:Inflammation under a denture

What can you do about pressure sores?

Pressure points arise when the dental prosthesis is no longer precisely adapted to the current jaw conditions. This leads to an increased Pressure load the Oral mucosacausing painful pressure points to develop. These can become inflamed and cause further damage to the mouth area. That is why they should be removed by the dentist at an early stage. As a preventive measure, the fit of the prosthesis should be checked regularly.

Around Pressure points to relieve the dentist can remove the defect on the prosthesis drag away. If there are major pressure points, it is a Relining or, if the prosthesis has been worn for several years, one Reassembly the full denture makes sense. In this way, the base of the prosthesis is adapted to the situation in the mouth and the fit of the prosthesis is also significantly improved.

You may also be interested in this topic:Interim prosthesis

Prosthetic care

Even if a Lining in most cases unavoidable after at least 1 1/2 years is and a denture is not a "real" tooth, it is still very important that the to be cleaned thoroughly every day. bacteria can still settle in the oral cavity and Inflammation, as well as one unpleasant smell cause.

A clean and well-maintained prosthesis not only looks better, it does also increases their comfort and their durability. You give your mouth back its “feeling of freshness”. After every meal it is recommended to have the dentures rinse under running wateras food scraps may have gotten under the prosthesis. Once a day should be the prosthesis thoroughly cleaned become. Care must be taken that it does not fall down and break. However, should this happen, it can be reassembled by the dental technician.

With a special denture toothbrush can the dentures thoroughly cleaned on all sides to remove leftover food and deposits. It is recommended for this special denture toothpaste to use, or everyday toothpaste that has one low proportion of abrasive particles otherwise the surface of the prosthesis could become roughened. Special cleaners in powder or tablet form can be used as a supplement, but not a substitute for manual cleaning.

Additionally recommends a regular check-ups at the dentist. If tartar remains, it is best to have it removed by the dentist using ultrasound.

Read more about this under:

costs

The costs For a denture can vary in a certain range from dentist to dentist vary, however subsidized by the health insurance. The health insurance subsidy can be increased by having a Bonus booklet leads.

The Total is exposed three pillars together. These are the Dentist's fee costs, the Laboratory costs and material costs. For the lower jaw you can on average with € 460-520 count on what the cash register pays around € 320 (without bonus). The health insurance share is increased with the bonus.

You can also find out more at: Dental prosthesis cost

The anatomical structure of the lower jaw

The bony basis in the lower jaw is from Alveolar process of the mandible educated. Similar to the upper jaw, the tooth sockets in the lower jaw ossify over time. The structures are also of one here immovable mucous membrane covered. This is also called fibrous marginal zone. Located further towards the throat, in the area of ​​the Wisdom teeth, there is a pear-shaped one Bone bulge, the retromolar trigone. In the field of Molars there is one Bone edge. This serves the Insertion of the mylohyoid muscle.

The sublingual caruncles can also be found in the lower jaw (Excretory ducts of two large salivary glands), as well as that Mental foramenvia which the inferior alveolar nerve leaves the bone.

Read more on this topic at:Lower jaw

  1. Lower jaw - Mandible
  2. Crown process -
    Coronoid process
  3. Lower jaw rest -
    Ramus mandibulae
  4. Mandibular angle -
    Angulus mandibulae
  5. Upper jaw - Maxilla
  6. Zygomatic bone - Os zygomaticum
  7. Zygomatic arch -
    Arcus zygomaticus
  8. Temporomandibular joint -
    Temporomandibular articulation
  9. External ear canal -
    Meatus acousticus externus
  10. Temporal bone - Temporal bone
  11. Frontal bone - Frontal bone
  12. Chin hole - Mental foramen
  13. Eye socket - Orbit
  14. Upper jaw, alveolar process -
    Alveolar process

You can find an overview of all Dr-Gumpert images at: medical illustrations

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Quality assurance by: Dr. Nicolas Gumpert | Last change: 21.04.2021