How anti-evolutionists abuse math games
what is the human? - Workbooks religion booklet 1: Anthropology grade 11 - Johannes-Gymnasium
what is the human? Workbooks Religion Booklet 1: Anthropology Grade 11
Anthropology (1): What is man?
Anthropology (1): aphorisms on the subject of "man" Everyone is a moon and has a dark side that it shows no one. Mark Twain 1830-1880 At some point a person will do everything for the last time. Arthur Clarke * 1917 We are people as far as we are head, we are God and the devil as far as we are heart. Ricarda Huch 1864-1947 Man, this strange creature, hovering between animal existence and hope. Lars Gustafsson * 1936 Nothing will be good and perfect until people are good and perfect themselves. Thomas More Man dominates nature before he has learned to control himself. Abert Schweitzer 1875-1965 Today's man has become more dangerous to nature than it ever was to him. Jonas If you read the obituaries in the newspapers and the grave inscriptions, you get the impression that the best part of humanity lies underground. Alec Guinness 1914 Man is the measure of all things. The excess. Norbert Wiener 1894-1964 Man: the unlimitedly limited. Eckhard Bahr It is strange that people think so little about the most important things in life. Graham Greene 1904-1991 People are not always what they seem, but are seldom something better. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing 1729 - 1781 It is part of human nature not to be perfect. Pope Pius VI 1717-1799 Man needs man in order to become man. Johannes R. Becher 1891-1958
Devil and God are the extremes from which man emerges. The devil is the destructive, God the creative force. Novalis 1772-1801 The ear of mankind is such that it sleeps through the sound and only wakes up through the echo. Arthur Schnitzler 1862-1931 Man is the crown of thorns of creation. Michael Richter The human being - an example of the unparalleled patience of nature. Christian Morgenstern 1871-1914 Man is of a complexity that only allows individualities. Friedrich Dürrenmatt 1921-1990 It is human nature to think sensibly and to act illogically. Anatole France 1844-1924 I'm tired of seeing through people. It's so easy and it doesn't get anywhere. Elias Canetti 1905-1994 Because man's greatest guilt is that he was born. Calderòn 1600-1681 Humans have one more advantage than machines - they are able to sell themselves. Stanislaw Jerzy Lec 1909-1966 There are only two good people - one has died and the other has not yet been born. Chinese Humanity consists of a few forerunners, a great number of followers and an unmanageable number of followers. Jean Cocteau 1889-1963 Man in his eternal curiosity has learned to dissect his world with the scalpel of science and has apparently lost the sense of balance and unity in the process. Walter Gropius 1883-1969 One must ask oneself what is causing greater damage to the soul of mankind today: the deluding greed for money or the grueling haste. Konrad Lorenz 1903-1989 Hundreds of dreary, monotonous, scorched steppes cannot make you as boring as a single person. Anton Chekhov 1860-1904 Homo sapiens lacks what is characteristic of other animals: the inhibition of killing their own species. We are creatures whose archaic inheritance remains insurmountable. Günter Kunert * 1929 "The future of violence" (Die Zeit 01/2002)
Even the darkest image of human beings have their shine: the murderer plays the flute masterfully, the overseer who whips his slaves bloody may honor father and mother, and the idiot would share his last piece of bread with me. It is our mistake to ask people to do precisely those virtues that they do not have, rather than develop what they do. Marguerite Yourcenar 1903-1987 "Memories of Hadrian" novel 1951 In life man first learns to walk and to speak. Later he learns to sit still and keep his mouth shut. Marcel Pagnol 1895-1974 I've tried my hand at being a global evangelist long enough and I've learned that I can't change the world. In addition, humanity behaves like a suicide (in terms of climate protection), and there is no longer any point in arguing with a suicide if he has already jumped out the window of a high-rise. Dennis L. Meadows "The Limits to Growth" 1972 The misfortune is that everyone thinks the other is like him and overlooks the fact that there are also decent people. Heinrich Zille 1858-1929 True humanity can only grow from the combination of freedom and moderation. Jacob Lehmann People have to endure leaving as they came here. Everything is ready. William Shakespeare 1564-1616 Man, the strange being: with his feet in the mud, with his head in the stars. Else Lasker-Schüler 1869-1945 Asparagus and humans have a common fate: as soon as someone lifts their head, they are stabbed. Eugen Gerstenmaier 1906-1986 A human being is a "creature", to put it in the old religious terminology, which has developed into an upright animal with an extended childhood phase and a relatively large brain measured by total weight. This creature has highly developed rational and emotional skills, it uses symbols, has - in addition to an unconscious - a high degree of consciousness and self-awareness, which includes an extended perception of time and an awareness of death (which it defies with a simple coffin or a grandiose pyramid ); she has a strong sense of morality, which is often reflected in a religion, shows excitement, especially in the sexual area, but also in other interpersonal situations, seeks social contact with conspecifics, organizes herself in families, in clans and in what we call society , has a personal and social history, ie a memorable, ordered past that is passed on from generation to generation, creates a "culture" and thus new non-genetic forms of information storage
and heredity and learns within the framework of this culture not only "artificial" methods of regulating their own offspring, but also the production of mechanical creatures, a possibly new "form of being" of evolution. Bruce Mazlish "Hand ax and electronic calculator - The rapprochement of man and machine" German 1998 One must have seen man in an unleashed state in order to know something about man. Otto Dix 1891-1969 The truth about a person is halfway between his reputation and his obituary. Robert Lembke 1913-1989 Man endures a lot as long as he endures himself. Axel Munthe 1857-1948 Anyone who finds nothing good in a person has looked badly. Ernst Ferstl We are not yet what we mean when we talk about people. A human would not act inhumanly - and we do that all the time. Hoimar von Ditfurth 1921-1989 We are, to put it this way, actually only the Neanderthals of tomorrow. Hoimar von Ditfurth 1921-1989 There are four types of people in the world: the lovers, the opportunists, the spectators and the morons. The latter are the luckiest. Hippolyte Taine 1828-1893 What makes a person tall? Is it the fact that he made nature his own? That he set almost cosmic forces in motion? That he conquered his home planet in a very short time and opened a window into the universe? No, my dear! That is not his size, but the fact that he got away with life in all of this and intends to continue to do so. Arkadi and Boris Strugazki (* 1925, * 1933) "Picnic by the wayside" SF story 1972, German 1976 I believe the worst of everyone, even myself, and I've rarely been mistaken. Johann Nepomuk Nestroy 1801-1862 Man is born as a genius and dies as an idiot. Charles Bukowski 1920-1994 Homo sapiens is practically unique in the realm of living things in terms of the lack of instinctive protective measures against the killing of conspecifics. Arthur Koestler 1905-1983
Tasks: 1) Choose an aphorism which, in your opinion, expresses something essential to the question of people and explain your selection! 2) Choose an aphorism that you strictly refuse to say!
Anthropology (2): Dimensions of being human Historical science Mental beings The human being Tasks: 1) Enter the dimensions of being human in the boxes and then think about which science this dimension relates to. (Tip: Orientate yourself with the sciences on the subject canon in school!) 2) Interpret the graphic in relation to the question of the validity of the individual sciences in the question: "What is the human being?"
Anthropology (2): The Scientific Knowledge Let me describe this relationship between the scientific knowledge about reality and the “actual” reality with a memorable parable, which was written by the famous English astrophysicist Sir Arthur Eddington in his 1939 book The Philosophy of Physical Sciences (dt. 5 Philosophy and Natural Science 1949) is cited. In this parable, Eddington compares the scientist with an ichthyologist, a fish expert who wants to research life in the sea. To do this, he casts his net, pulls it ashore and checks his catch in the usual way of a scientist. After many fish pulls and 10 conscientious checks, he formulates two basic laws of ichthyology: 1. All fish are larger than five centimeters. 2. All fish have gills. He calls these statements basic laws, since both points were confirmed with every catch without exception. He therefore hypothetically assumes that these statements will also be confirmed with every future catch, i.e. will remain true. A critical observer - let's call him the metaphysician - is highly dissatisfied with the ichthyologist's conclusion and vigorously objects: "Your second basic law, that all fish have gills, I accept as law, but your first basic law, that there is no law at all about the minimum size of the fish. There are certainly fish in the sea that are smaller than five centimeters, but you simply cannot catch them with your net because it has a mesh size of five centimeters 25! "However, our ichthyologist is by no means impressed by this objection and replies:" What I cannot catch with my net is, in principle, beyond the knowledge of fish history, it does not relate to any object of the kind that is defined as an object in ichthyology. For me as an ichthyologist, what I can't catch is not a fish. ”So much for the parable. It can be used as a parable for natural science. When this parable is applied to natural science, the ichthyologist's network corresponds to the methodological equipment and the sensory tools of the natural scientist, which he uses to make his catch; H. 35 collecting scientific knowledge, ejecting and pulling in the net, scientific observation. We see at once that the quarrel between the ichthyologist and the metaphysician is not based on an actual contradiction, but is only caused by the different ways in which the opponents view it. The metaphysician starts from the idea that there is an objective fish world in the sea, which can also include very small fish. Perhaps there are also certain indications for him, for example when he looks into the water from the bank. But he has difficulty in proving its “objectivity” in the sense of the ichthyologist, because in the parlance of the ichthyologist an object is something that he can catch with a net. The metaphysician perceives this condition of catchability as an inadmissible subjective restriction of the reality that is objective for him and therefore denies the relevance of the ichthyologist's statement. The ichthyologist disagrees here. It is of no interest to him whether he makes a selection in the course of his catch or not. He is content with what he catch
50 can, and therefore has the advantage over the metaphysician of not having to make vague speculations anywhere. The conciseness of his statements is essentially based on this self-modesty. Furthermore, from a practical point of view, the restriction to what is catchable does not appear to have any major disadvantageous consequences. For fish eaters, the knowledge established by the ichthyologist is completely sufficient, since a fish that cannot be caught is of no interest to them. The parable with our ichthyologist is, of course, too simple to adequately describe the position of the natural scientist and his relationship to reality. But the parable is nuanced enough to characterize at least the essential features of this relationship. Natural science is not about the actual reality, the original world experience, or, more generally: what is behind it, but only about a certain projection of this reality, namely about the aspect which, according to detailed instructions in experimental manuals, can be described by "good" Can filter out observations. Hans-Peter Dürr: Science and Reality. In: Helmut A. Müller (ed.): Science and faith. Scherz Verlag, Bern and others 1988, pp. 71-73 Exercises: 1) Explain the network parabola by H.P. Dürr to scientific knowledge, in which the image and factual half of the parabola enter into the following table! Half of the picture half of the ichthyologist net fish> 5 cm fish <5 cm fish eater 2) Explain the following figure:
Natural science Method = Pro = Really the jection = ability (e.g. man)
Anthropology (4): Biological anthropology
Anthropology (3): The development of mankind The development of mankind Once the guys perched in the trees, hairy and with an evil face. Then they were lured out of the jungle. and the world paved and topped up, up to the thirtieth floor. There they sat now, escaped from the fleas, in centrally heated rooms. There they are now on the phone. And the tone is exactly the same as it was on the trees. You hear far. They watch TV. You are in touch with the universe. You brush your teeth. You breathe modern. The earth is a formed star with a lot of flushing water. They shoot the letters through a pipe. They hunt and breed microbes. They provide nature with every comfort. They soar steeply into the sky and stay up there for two weeks. What their digestion leaves behind they process into cotton wool. They split atoms. They cure incest. And through style studies they find out that Caesar had flat feet. So they created the progress of mankind with their head and mouth, But apart from that and seen in the light, they are basically still the old apes. (Erich Kaestner)
Anthropology (3): The human family tree from: Der Spiegel 52/2005, p. 147
Anthropology (4): Darwin's work, God's contribution In the beginning there was the giant clam. And Areop-Enap, the old spider, came over her.With a spell she forced the shell halves apart and turned them into heaven and earth. But the sweat of the worm Rigi, her assistant, gathered in the salty ocean. After all, the old spider created out of stones - man. No, completely different: there was light - on the first day. Then the Almighty separated heaven from earth. Later he set about creating plants, fish, birds and other animals. On the sixth day, he finally succeeded in his masterpiece: man, the crown of all creation. He told him to subdue the earth. It was all 10,000 years ago at most. Again: In the beginning there were molecules. Microscopic cells emerged from them. Each of these creatures inherited its genes, which varied by chance and produced new forms. The strongest, quickest and most resilient beings survived and passed on their genetic make-up. Millions of years later, animals and plants had developed in this way. In the end, step by step, fascinating complexities emerged from the play of genes: first the monkey and, many mutations, later humans - and thus the only animal capable of researching its origin. The first story is a creation myth from the island of Nauru in the South Pacific, the smallest republic in the world. The second version of creation is taught by Christians. The third theory is based on the findings of the British naturalist Charles Darwin. Evolution, says Connie Morris, is "an ancient fairy tale," and Kathy Martin says, "I doubt that humans are apes-derived." Steve Abrams believes the earth is less than 10,000 years old. The three are members of the Kansas Schools Council. Together with seven colleagues, you specify what the students in the US state should learn. And because most of them agree that neither Areap-Enap nor the molecules were at work, but that the Almighty gave birth to people and life in general, they made a momentous decision at their meeting in November: The Kansas biology teachers are no longer just supposed to teach evolution. They should also be able to tell of an unearthly power, an intelligent designer who created people in all their glory. Charles Darwin, the founder of the theory of evolution, was put on trial. The decision extends well beyond the borders of Kansas. A culture war is raging in America - and the school councils have achieved a stage victory before the eyes of the world: for the cause of the Lord, for the mighty movement of the religious right. And against science. The decision cannot simply be dismissed as a provincial farce, because the ten councils represent the white middle class in large swathes of the United States. Totally against Darwin - that's what is currently said in 20 of the 50 states of the leading industrial nation. Even in liberal bastions like Michigan and New York, new laws were being considered as to how the teaching of evolution should be taught in public schools. The long-term goal of the Darwin opponents goes far beyond the curriculum: "The basis of all science should be replaced by a Christian theism," demanded Phillip Johnsan, one of the movement's founding fathers, seven years ago that man is seen again as the image of God. " Both sides consider Darwin's teaching to be the most important bastion of the humanistic-liberal worldview. Once it has been honed, many intellectuals fear that it will not be far before all leftists, homosexuals and proponents of abortion will be ostracized. The believers, on the other hand, are afraid that the biologists will simply explain away the Creator for them. A European, Vaclav Havel, put this fear in a nutshell: “The modern one
Science, "said the former Czech President," kills God and takes his place on the empty throne. " The showdown in the Kulturkampf has now come in Pennsylvania. In the small town of Dover, eleven mothers and fathers had sued their school district because their children, incited by religious zealots in the biology class, hatred at home about the theory of ancestry. Any talk of an intelligent creator, the plaintiffs found, had no place in the classroom. This is because the United States Constitution forbids teaching religious content in public schools. Supporters on both sides were cross-examined for weeks. On Tuesday, Harrisburg federal judge John Jones III put a powerful damper on the missionaries of intelligent design. They had "lied again and again" in order to achieve their true goal of "bringing religion into the classroom of the public school". In his unusually harsh verdict, Jones castigated her behavior as a "breathtaking lunatic." Kathy Martin, the Bible-devout school councilor in Kansas, doesn't care about the verdict: "I don't see why that should change anything in our decision," she commented on the verdict . As with her, the verdict should roll off most Americans. Because in what remains the largest scientific power in the world, 84 percent of the population assume that God was involved in the creation of man in some way (see graphic on page 143) - and even President George W. Bush spoke out in favor of it in August to teach intelligent design to children. The sociobiologist Edward Wilson finds it “unsurpassedly strange” that Americans are so difficult to convince of evolution. Because the evidence that thousands of scientists have compiled, checked and cross-checked over the course of the last 150 years is overwhelming. It is confirmed every day The theory of descent through genetic analyzes and fossil finds anew. Just at the beginning of the month a petrified Archeopteryx from the area around the Bavarian Solnhofen caused a sensation, because the ancient flutter man is so intact that he lets the paleobiologists read his bones very clearly: One Toe reveals the amazingly close relationship between the primitive bird and the bipedal predatory dinosaurs - its cousin, the Velociraptor, known as the greedy beast in Jurassic Park, had a similar jackknife-like killer claw. There is no doubt: there are still gaps in our knowledge of evolution. In search of explanations, the biologists continue to research and debate. They are constantly discovering questionable, controversial and infinitely fascinating things about the reality of life on earth. This year, in particular, such significant discoveries have accumulated that the current issue of the science magazine "Science" is celebrating it as the "breakthrough of the year". The more researchers learn about the secrets of evolution, the closer they get to the solution to the greatest riddle: What makes man human? "Ultimately, everything we do has an answer," says Axel Meyer, evolutionary biologist at the University of Konstanz. Evolutionary scientists are inspired by euphoria, because they feel closer to the goal than ever before: genetic researchers are reading the whole genome at an ever faster pace Organisms. Just in September they announced that they had deciphered the chimpanzee genome, identifying the 1.2 percent of the genome sequence that was apparently required to transform ape intelligence into the acuteness of a Voltaire, the genius of a Mozart, the madness of a Now the biologists set about filtering the molecular extract of being human from this data: Where exactly are those switches that showed the ancestors the way to upright gait, language, consciousness?
Such open questions do not change anything: In the whole of science there is "nothing more firmly established, nothing more illuminating than the universal occurrence of biological evolution," writes Wilson in the afterword of the most recent new edition of Darwin's collected works. Even relativity and quantum theory do not come close to that The theory of evolution as perhaps the greatest intellectual revolution that mankind has experienced, "said Wilson's colleague Ernst Mayr, who died at the age of 100 at the beginning of the year. Darwin's great idea has long since become the centerpiece of any modern understanding of nature. "Nothing in biology makes sense, except in the light of evolution," lectured the great Russian-American naturalist Theodosius Döbzhansky. At the same time, however, no knowledge has offended man any deeper. Man, the noble creature, should be the crown of creation from the ape Is it nothing but the result of random processes, without a plan and goal, without a sacred breath that conjures up life from the crumb? The absence of the divine hand, which guides those seeking advice and helps those who stumble, leaves the world cold and meaningless And the thought that all complexity on earth, even human intelligence and the fascination of consciousness should have arisen through an aimless process, seems difficult to grasp. How nice it would be if it succeeded, a personal being, an intelligent one To smuggle designers into this apparently so deprived nature. The religious right of America tries to do this with missionary zeal - and is now preparing a global campaign against Darwin. The Conservative Discovery Institute in Seattle, the movement's think tank, sponsors more than 40 academics and book authors to broadcast the idea of Intelligent Design (ID) into the world. In the summer, the institute helped Vienna Archbishop Christoph Schönborn to place a commentary on evolution in the "New York Times". In October it sponsored a conference ("Darwin and Design") in Prague, which attracted 700 followers. "The intelligent design movement is growing in many places," enthuses Institute President Bruce Chapman. In Germany, however, only 16 percent of the population believe in a creation à la Bible - a relatively small market for creationists. But when the Thuringian Prime Minister Dieter Althaus a German one ID representatives invited to a top-class panel discussion, it became clear that the mix of metaphysics and science is now also acceptable in this country. In the Netherlands and Italy, ID supporters have already achieved - albeit short-lived - successes. In both countries, the education ministers announced Sympathy with their ideas, and only rowed back after violent protests. In Charles Darwin's homeland, of all places, the creationists even succeeded in anchoring the doctrine of creation in state-supported schools. As in their American brother country, fundamental Christian millionaires lead the crusade in Great Britain : The school system allows you to make private donations - in return, the sponsor can influence teaching content. The extremely wealthy car dealer Peter Vardy, who already runs three schools to his liking, has particularly distinguished himself with such activities. The creationists are also celebrating a great triumph in what is actually strictly secular Turkey. As early as 1999, an uprising of liberal professors died there, stifled by threats and harassment. The students can now be presented undisturbed in the biology class with Allah as the Creator of life on earth. The ID advocates can reliably appeal to the amazement that has always befallen people in the face of the wonders of life. It almost seems as if the brooding is over
the origin of the world to the natural basic equipment of Homo sapiens. Because almost all cultures have tried in their own way to make the incomprehensibility of existence more understandable through a creation myth. But which of the many legends of the founding of the world should one now believe? Who was it: Areop-Enap or the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva? Or is it the God of Jews, Christians and Muslims? The only one who has written a story of creation, the truth of which can be checked with the help of natural science, is the Englishman for whom the culture war is now raging in the USA. But even Charles Darwin initially knew how to explain the beguiling abundance of flora and fauna solely through a Creator. Yes, the man who was supposed to make God superfluous in the end even wanted to become his servant at first. Perhaps the young theologian and naturalist would have actually ended his life in seclusion as a country pastor had he not found a thick envelope in his mail, stamped in London, on August 29, 1831, at the age of 22 at the time: he was offered the opportunity to attend one World trip. Four months later, the brig "Beagle" set sail. Darwin had his tiny aft cabin full of sample containers, chemicals, dissecting equipment, microscope, trawl, geologist's hammer and books. Now he was sick in the hammock over the chart table. On the Cape Verde island of Sao Finally he saw Tiago scurrying through the thicket of wildcats, brightly colored kingfishers fluttering about, baobabs, thick as grain silos, provided shade. "So much beauty," marveled Darwin, "and made for so little purpose." For three and a half years the "Beagle" sailed. Along the coasts of South America - plenty of time for Darwin to ponder the riddles of life by the evening campfire over nandue dumplings and fried puma embryo: Who created all the blood-licking vampires, the sultry orchids, the armies of predatory ants? What had happened to the giant sloths whose bones he had knocked out of the rock? In the end, the world traveler brought home rich booty: his diary comprised 770 pages, he had filled almost 2,000 more pages with notes, 1,529 species soaked in alcohol, and 390,77 hides, bones and other found objects were labeled. After his return he began to interpret his souvenirs - he had set out on his second, even more adventurous expedition, an expedition of the spirit. The correspondence left by Darwin comprises around 15,000 letters. Above all, however, he has entrusted all his doubts and questions, his fears, hopes and flashes of inspiration to his notebooks. A real Darwin industry has set about the exegesis of this unique treasure trove of documents. Because it allows the genesis of what is probably the most important idea in Western science to be reconstructed with an unprecedented level of detail. Slowly, tentatively, Darwin approached the concept of "transmutation", as he called the species change. The birds of the Galapagos Archipelago in particular brought him enlightenment: animals that he had originally thought to be wrens, thrushes and grosbeak turned out to be on closer inspection as close relatives. All of them must have descended from an ancestor who had once found their way to the remote Pacific Islands. Some of the descendants grew stronger and stronger so that they could crack hard fruits. Others grew slimmer bills and pecked with them Insects or sucked nectar from calyxes. Darwin boldly sketched a family tree and resolutely wrote "I think" over it. It was clear to the young researcher that he was on the threshold of heresy. With a shudder, he confessed to his notebook: “The devil in the form of the baboon is our grandfather!” Because there was one thing he never had illusions about: Anyone who declares animals to be creatures of evolution cannot stop at humans. Even thinking is nothing as an "organic function like the secretion of bile that of the liver". The human being
may look at the orangutan, he mocked after watching the monkey girl Jenny in London Zoo for hours, “listening to its expressive wailing sounds, experiencing its intelligence. And he should look at a savage roasting his parents, naked and unskilled. And then he should once again dare to proudly call himself the crown of creation. "He did not yet initiate anyone. Because Darwin knew about the enormous explosive power of his thoughts:" The whole building is shaking and falling, "he wrote in his secret notebook . And that, he had no doubt about it, would not be accepted by the ecclesiastical society of England. Hadn't he seen scholars sidelined who dared to express doubts about divine creation? Hadn't he read "with fear and trembling" the furious reviews that threatened anyone who questioned the immutability of species? Darwin was strategically preparing for his great coup. As early as 1842 he had secretly drafted a sketch of his theory he waited the world for another 17 years. During this time he gained a lot of tactical insights: "No comments whatsoever about the ancestry of horses, dogs or people," he noted - the sensitivities of these three species seemed too great. He noted that he needed to point out the Church's persecution of previous astronomers. And he realized he needed allies. Determined and in small doses, Darwin trickled his poison into the heads of his colleagues: the first he introduced the botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker to his line of thought: "It's like confessing a murder," he wrote. Then he dared, including Charles Opposite Lyell; at that time probably the greatest capacity in natural history, first hints. And he drew the young, ardent Thomas Henry Huxley on his side, who later defended his theses sharply as "Darwin's Bulldog".When Darwin went public with his great work "The Origin of Species" in 1859, the attack was so well prepared, the cornucopia of evidence so bursting, the argument so sober, astute and thoughtful that the phalanx The enemy quickly crumbled. Soon the idea of a creator god had largely played out in Europe's scholarly world. In place of the old-style amateur researchers, a new generation of scientists emerged who wrested its secrets from nature for a fixed salary. From the beginning they founded theirs Insights and theories firmly on the Darwinian foundation. Hardly any of these professionals doubted the descent of humans from apes. The evidence today is too overwhelming: the paleoanthropologists brought skulls from excavation sites in Ethiopia, Tanzania, Java and China for skull, jaw fragment for jaw fragment, the hidden ways of the incarnation to the Lich t. There is no doubt that these document the origin of modern Homo sapiens from Africa. Darwin had already located them there when he suspected that humans' closest cousins were chimpanzees and gorillas. Since then, the fossils have fallen like matching pieces into the great puzzle of a slowly unfolding tribal history: from ape-like creatures like the Sahelanthropus to the Australapithecines and Homo erectus to modern humans. Ninety years late, even the Vicar of Christ saw that Darwin could not have been so wrong. In 1950 Pope Pius XII confessed. his doctrine to be a "serious hypothesis". Even in the Vatican from then on evolution was viewed as "worthy of research and deeper reflection." Quite different across the Atlantic. A nation had arisen there that was in large part the work of sectarians. "White America was founded by people who were driven by religious ideologies," says the philosopher Michael Ruse, 65, of Florida
State University in Tallahassee. The treks of the Puritans, Mennonites and other bigots had penetrated into the interior of the country in order to be able to live out their faith there. They sent their children to their own schools and universities, and cut themselves off from the elites on the east coast. In this way, a broad religious movement emerged in the south and in the mid-west of the United States, whose followers called themselves "fundamentalists" after a popular Christian series. Their descendants now go to church much more often than believing Europeans; That's why they are determined to swap Darwin's doctrine of species change back for the Bible story. Because he refused to believe that, biology teacher John Scopes was tried in 1925 in Dayton, a small town in the hills of Tennessee. The young teacher had dared to explain Darwin's theory of human descent to his students, thereby breaking the law. The "monkey trial" captivated the whole country. Proponents and opponents of evolution fought ravishing verbal battles. As the first trial in US history, the trial was broadcast on the radio; an audience of millions took part in how the creationists won the day. Teacher Scopes was fined Zoo Dollar. It was not until the Sputnik shock at the end of the fifties that creationism could slow down. Shocked by the Soviet advance into space, the US government pushed science education forward. The anti-evolutionists were pushed back. And yet, until the 1980s, it was expressly forbidden in some US states to explain the matter with the monkeys to students without countering the biblical version at the same time. It was not until 1987 that the Supreme Court finally decided in a model trial that creationism spreads a religious view - and was therefore condemned once and for all from the organic lesson. The judgment forced the creationists to package their idea differently: "Intelligent design" became the new slogan of the holy warriors. The strategy consisted in not completely denying evolutionary forces in nature, but wherever modern biology is still puzzling stands to conjure up a supernatural "intelligence" to explain, which has directed the course of natural history. In reality, of course, the change from creationist to ID disciple usually only consists of replacing the old "God" with the new "intelligent designer". Michael Behe, a bearded biochemistry professor and thought leader at ID, is one of those people who has mastered this very well. He is the star among the 41 "Fellows" and "Senior Fellows" of the Discovery Institute, whose job it is to provide pseudo-scientific superstructure to Bible-devout sectarians wherever Darwin is available in the USA. The activities of the Discovery people are part of a strategy that is guided by the dream of an American god-state. The institute is funded in part by the same Christian Conservatives who brought George W Bush into the White House. According to the New York Times, about $ 4.1 million in grants and donations flowed in 2003 - including from a total of 22 foundations, about two-thirds of them with explicitly religious goals. An internal manifesto from the Discovery Institute describes the real motives: "The materialistic view of reality ultimately infected all areas of our culture, from politics / economy to literature / art. " In a 20-year campaign, the idea of ID should therefore be planted in people's minds. The manifesto says: “Design theory promises the suffocating predominance of
overturning materialistic worldview and replacing it with a natural science that is in harmony with Christian and theistic convictions. "Compared to their kindred spirits across the Atlantic, the small group of German creationists bobbed around modestly. The Kassel evolutionary biologist Ulrich Kutschera, who wrote a whole book Dedicated to the local scene and its activities, divides it into two camps: On the one hand there are the "esoteric" who claim that humans and dinosaurs have populated the earth at the same time. Or they calculate the size of Noah's ark based on biblical information (“minimum dimensions: 135 m x 22.5 m x 13.5 m”). "It's so stupid," says Kutschera, "that an expert can only shake his head." The biologist classifies the scientifically trained creation teachers and ID disciples as more dangerous. "They abuse their academic titles to bring beliefs disguised as scientific facts to the people," complains Kutschera. This sometimes makes it difficult to expose the hidden Christian mission as such. Besides Cardinal Schönborn, who never gets tired, in his catechesis in the The creationists found another important ally in Dieter Althaus, today Thuringian Prime Minister, to scourge Darwin's doctrine in Vienna St. Stephen's Cathedral three years ago Machwerk had won a school book prize - awarded by the bigots themselves. The former physics teacher recommended the book for biology classes as a "very good example of value-oriented education and upbringing" and railed against the "evolutionists" and their only "apparently coherent theory" . Althaus' sympathy with the cause of those who were faithful to the Bible went so far that he recently invited one of the authors of the pseudo-textbook, Siegfried Scherer, to the "Erfurt Dialogue" in the State Chancellery. The Thuringian Prime Minister had thus chosen a speaker who not only included everyone Ernst assures us that all people on this planet descended from Adam and Eve. Scherer also claims, particularly bizarre for a microbiologist with a professorship at the Technical University of Munich, that death came into the world as a "consequence of the Fall". It was only the public outrage that forced Althaus to discharge those who believed in creation again. On Tuesday of this week, he completely gave up the support of his fellow believers: "I do not represent creationism or intelligent design." He thinks that the Christian organic book is in Thuringian school libraries "not at all good". Most scientists find it difficult to deal with confused theses like those of Scherer. "The physicists don't have to deal with everyone who believes in earth rays and dowsing rods," complains Kutschera. He prefers to devote himself to his job Today's diversity of life emerged. The advances in microbiology mean that researchers are now able to witness evolutionary change directly in the laboratory. Over thousands and thousands of generations, researchers have multiplied bacteria in liquid culture, exposing them to the most adverse environmental conditions. This is confirmed every day the principle of variation and selection. "We can even thaw the ancestors of these bacteria again and compete against their present-day descendants," enthuses Kutschera. "It's like bringing a Tyrannosaurus rex to life and seeing how it asserts itself against today's predatory mammal, a lion for example." And just two weeks ago, the researchers reported that after the chimpanzee - now also the canine - Soon it will be possible to understand in detail how minor differences in the genome can change shape and produce spitz, mastiff or shepherd dog.
In a major international effort, evolutionary biologists have already begun to draw a gigantic “Tree of Life” based on genetic data. “With genetic analyzes, for example, we have found that the lungfish is much more closely related to us mammals than the coelacanth, which is still the ancestor in many biology books, "explains Meyer. In addition, the genome analysis could help to find out more about evolution. How exactly did legs turn into wings and fins turn into legs? Why are there hundreds of thousands of species of beetles, but not even 300 different primates? How was nature able to produce this immeasurable diversity in the first place? Evolutionary biologists already know one answer: sex. When the genetic makeup of males and females merges, surprisingly new colors and shapes emerge in each generation in the form of their offspring - and ultimately, much later, also species. Sex also contributes directly to speciation, as it turns out. Sometimes relatives of the same species suddenly seem to no longer find sexy and from then on develop separately from one another. This seems to have been the case with many of the 50 cichlid species in Lake Victoria in Africa. But why do some of the female fish suddenly go for golden lovers and ignore the old, black and white favorites? How and where is the change in taste reflected in the genetic make-up of men and women? "Such preference genes, which influence the choice of partner, are a hot topic at the moment," says the Konstanz researcher Meyer, who has just returned from an excursion to nine crater lakes in Nicaragua, where he loves the genes of such picky cichlids Pisces: Masters of the diversity among vertebrates, recently presented the researchers with an astonishing discovery - and thus closed one of those gaps in the theoretical structure in which creationists so like to see a hideout of divine activity, because until now it was unclear why some animal groups were so exuberant It has now been shown that the ancestors of this fish group doubled their genetic make-up about 350 million years ago. 44 species of their poor cousins, with whose genome this did not occur, still live today , including, for example, the sturgeon. The principle according to which the duplication of genome to species fish expert Meyer describes it as follows: “Copy A does the normal job. And copy B mutates happily. "One genome thus guaranteed normal reproduction and survival. However, the fish could experiment safely with the copy. Variants that worked and brought advantages were permanently installed. 20,000 years are easily enough Meyer found out in Nicaragua in order to create new species; that is the blink of an eye in natural history. Sex and genome duplication - it seems that nature has produced both mechanisms in order to be able to produce new species as quickly as possible New things that arise without having to reinvent the world from scratch every time. The same amazing principle can also be found in another discovery that is currently about to revolutionize the understanding of evolution: The researchers are on a universal set encountered by genes that have determined the development of animal shapes for at least 500 million years - that of all animals, regardless of whether they are jellyfish, flatworms, ladybugs or humans. These so-called homeobox genes behave like star architects. They draw up the grand plan, tell the cells in the embryo whether they should become a head or a tail, which pieces of genetic material to read and which are better to shut down. One and the same gene, for example, controls the development of the human lens eye and the compound eye of the dragonfly.
With fruit flies in particular, the researchers have now learned to play around with the control genes. The result are creatures that seem to have sprung from horror films: flies with eyes growing out of their heads on their legs or legs. Such ancient genes function like an evolutionary kit for the construction of novel creatures. A recent result of the researchers shows that this idea is more than just theory: only one of the modular genes has to be regulated differently in order to give a second variant of the stickleback a new habitat in a Canadian lake. One farm uses long spines to protect itself from predatory fish in the open water. The other stickleback swarms on the ground. But voracious dragonfly larvae live there, and the juvenile fish prefer to grab their spines. The corresponding construction kit gene is largely turned off in this lake dweller, so that only short thorns grow on it. "The diversity does not originate so much in the content of the construction kit, but in its use," explains Sean Carroll, who conducts research at the University of Wisconsin. This means that hundreds of genes no longer have to mutate randomly until one, as if by a miracle It is enough to read the modular genes sometimes a little more, sometimes a little less, sometimes at a different point in the body or at a different point in time during development. Perhaps, some researchers hope, it is The small difference between humans and chimpanzees can also be explained as follows: with different regulation of the genes. In fact, a mechanism in the human brain that evidently emerged in the history of the tribes has only just been discovered, which has been proven to work differently than in the chimpanzee: The cells in the human brain are larger Quantities of a certain substance, a precursor of various neuropeptides, which comprehensively affect the consciousness process e how perception and behavior, memory and social bonding work. It is not the blueprint of the substance itself that has changed on the way from monkey to Homo sapiens, but only those genome segments that regulate how much, when and where it is produced. "It is too early to say whether these changes are the key to what makes us human," says American evolutionary geneticist Bruce Lahn. "But it seems to be a reasonable hypothesis." A gene as one of the candidates for explaining human consciousness? It gets tight for the Creator. From: Der Spiegel 52/2005, pp. 136-147
Anthropology (5): Creationists in German schools? Criticism of creationists Gießen schools are being reviewed Because they teach the Christian doctrine of creation in the subject of biology, two schools in Gießen, Hesse, have to face critical questions. The Hessian Minister of Education Karin Wolff (CDU) announced at the end of last week in the school committee of the state parliament that the Giessen education authority would ask the private, but state-recognized August Hermann-Francke-Schule to comment. School inspectors and politicians are reacting to a documentary broadcast by the television station Arte a few days earlier; This had reported that the fundamental Christian creationism, which had emerged in the USA, and its scientifically inspired variant, "intelligent design", were also becoming increasingly widespread in Europe. As evidence of this, teaching material from biology classes was shown for the eighth grade at the Giessen private school , according to which "the three kinds of man are descended from the three sons of Noah", the Grand Canyon was created by the Flood and the dinosaurs lived with man on earth.Such "pseudo-scientific speculations" had no place in biology lessons, declared the SPD in the Hessian state parliament after the broadcast. The Greens and the German Biologists' Association also expressed criticism; the Ministry of Education must ensure that the evolutionary theory, which goes back to Charles Darwin, is taught in schools. In the opinion of the Minister of Education and Cultural Affairs, Wolff, the teaching of evolution in private schools is "taught sensibly and appropriately". However, the use of the doctrine of creation is being checked, although a private school is allowed to show "its special character in all subjects". The school has not yet commented on the allegations, but a former teacher described it as "character assassination rather than truth". The case of a biology teacher at the state-owned Liebig Gymnasium, who is also supposed to teach the doctrine of creation, is also being examined. MARCO FINETTI From: SZ, 25.09.06, p. 16
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